Ventral striatum / Nucleus Accumbens

Image and Location

Wiki pages on the striatum and on the nucleus accumbens in wikipedia:

The Ventral Striatum in animal studies (rat studies mostly) includes the Nucleus Accumbens and the olfactory tubercle. Strictly speaking in humans it refers to the ventral part of the nucleus striatum, i.e., ventral part of the caudate and putamen. However, many studies refer to the ventral striatum as mostly including the ventral parts of caudate and putamen together with the nucleus accumbens. In fMRI studies, considering the spatial resolution and the proximity of all the structures and its functional relationships, the ventral striatum-accumbens refers to the same functional area. The link between the BG (specifically, the nucleus accumbens) and reward was first demonstrated as part of the self-stimulation circuit originally described by Olds and Milner (1954). Since then, the nucleus accumbens (and the VS in general) has been a central site for studying reward and drug reinforcement and for the transition between drug use as a reward and as a habit (Kalivas, Volkow, and Seamans 2005; Taha and Fields 2006). The term VS, coined by Heimer, includes the nucleus accumbens and the broad continuity between the caudate nucleus and putamen ventral to the rostral internal capsule, the olfactory tubercle and the rostrolateral portion of the anterior perforated space adjacent to the lateral olfactory tract in primates (Heimer et al. 1999). From a connectional perspective, it also includes the medial caudate nucleus, rostral to the anterior commissure (Haber and McFarland 1999). Human imaging studies demonstrate the involvement of the VS in reward prediction and reward prediction errors (Knutson et al. 2001; O’Doherty et al. 2004; Pagnoni et al. 2002; Tanaka et al. 2004) and the region is activated during reward anticipation (Schultz 2000). It has a key role in the acquisition and development of reward-based behaviors and its involvement in drug addiction and drug-seeking behaviors (Belin and Everitt 2008; Everitt and Robbins 2005; Porrino et al. 2007; Volkow et al. 2006). While the VS is similar to the dorsal striatum in most respects, there are also some unique features. The VS contains a subterritory, the shell,* which plays a particularly important role in the circuitry underlying goal-directed behaviors, behavioral sensitization, and changes in affective states (Carlezon and Wise 1996; Ito, Robbins, and Everitt 2004). Specifically, while both the dorsal and ventral striatum receive input from the cortex, thalamus, and brainstem, the VS alone also receives a dense projection from the amygdala and hippocampus. Indeed, the best way to define the VS is by its afferent projections from cortical areas that mediate different aspects of reward processing, the vmPFC, OFC, dACC, and the medial temporal lobe.

See this specific section in the following text: Neurobiology of Sensation and Reward. Gottfried JA, editor. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press; 2011. Chapter 11 Neuroanatomy of Reward: A View from the Ventral Striatum. By Suzanne N. Haber.

Link to the chapter:

Coronal image of a real anatomical slice where we can see the Nucleus Accumbens (signaled in green) and, close to it, the ventral parts of the striatum (ventral caudate/Putamen):

Coronal and saggital images the Nucleus Accumbens on an MRI scan, the ventral parts of the striatum (ventral caudate/Putamen):


Human ventral striatum and proximal areas:

From: Basar, K., T. Sesia, et al. (2010). Nucleus accumbens and impulsivity. Prog Neurobiol 92(4): 533-557. basar_2010_imptt.pdf


Neurosynth, Ventral Striatum centered around the location of the Nucleus Accumbens:

* Low threshold map

* Higher threshold map

Resting-State Functional Connectivity of the ventral striatum (inferior and superior ventral striatum) (Di Martino et al, 2008; Cerebral Cortex)

Location of the seeds: Superior Ventral Striatum: 10,15,0; Inferior Ventral Striatum: 9,9,-8 (nucleus accumbens)

DiMartino_2008 dimartino2008.pdf


Structural connectivity between the basal ganglia and thalamus (red depicts the ventral striatum -ventral parts of the putamen and caudate) and the frontal cortex (Draganski et al, 2008; J Neurosci)


Draganski_2008 Draganski_2008

Draganski_2008 Draganski_2008


Searches so far:

word [search_in] and/or/not_operators word [all] e.g., RVM [all] and Fields [author]

Searches so far include:

“Ventral Striatum” [all] AND Meta-analysis [all]

“Ventral Striatum” [all] AND Pain [all] AND (fMRI OR PET) [all]

“Ventral Striatum” [all] AND (Reinforcement OR Reward OR Pleasure OR Addiction OR Addictive OR Craving) [all] AND (fMRI OR PET) [all]

“Ventral Striatum” [all] AND MRI [all] AND Review [all]

“Ventral Striatum” [all] AND (Aversive OR Unpleasant) [all] AND (fMRI OR PET) [all]

“Ventral Striatum” [all] AND Pain [all] AND Review [all]

“ventral striatum” [all] AND (“functional connectivity” OR “resting-state”) [all]

Most important references

These papers are uploaded in the endnote library files below!

Some seminal work/ important references on the Ventral Striatum

· Belin D., Everitt B. J. Cocaine seeking habits depend upon dopamine-dependent serial connectivity linking the ventral with the dorsal striatum. Neuron. 2008;57:432–41.

· Everitt B. J., Robbins T. W. Neural systems of reinforcement for drug addiction: From actions to habits to compulsion. Nat Neurosci. 2005;8:1481–89.

· Haber S. N., McFarland N. R. The concept of the ventral striatum in nonhuman primates. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1999;877:33–48.

· Heimer L., De Olmos J.S., Alheid G. F., Person J., Sakamoto N., Shinoda K., Marksteiner J., Switzer R. C. The human basal forebrain. Part II. Bloom F.E., Bjorkland A., Hokfelt T. Amsterdam: Elsevier; Handbook of Chemical Neuroanatomy. 1999:57–226.

· Kalivas P. W., Volkow N., Seamans J. Unmanageable motivation in addiction: A pathology in prefrontal-accumbens glutamate transmission. Neuron. 2005;45:647–50.

· Knutson B., Adams C. M., Fong G. W., Hommer D. Anticipation of increasing monetary reward selectively recruits nucleus accumbens. J Neurosci. 2001;21 RC159.

· O’Doherty J., Dayan P., Schultz J., Deichmann R., Friston K., Dolan R. J. Dissociable roles of ventral and dorsal striatum in instrumental conditioning. Science. 2004;304:452–54.

· Olds J., Milner P. Positive reinforcement produced by electrical stimulation of septal area and other regions of rat brain. J Comp Physiol Psychol. 1954;47:419–27.

· Pagnoni G., Zink C. F., Montague P. R., Berns G. S. Activity in human ventral striatum locked to errors of reward prediction. Nat Neurosci. 2002;5:97–98.

· Porrino L. J., Smith H. R., Nader M. A., Beveridge T. J. The effects of cocaine: A shifting target over the course of addiction. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2007;31:1593–1600.

· Schultz W. Getting formal with dopamine and reward. Neuron. 2002;36:241–63.

· Schultz W. Multiple reward signals in the brain. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2000;1:199–207.

· Schultz W., Tremblay L., Hollerman J. R. Reward processing in primate orbitofrontal cortex and basal ganglia. Cereb Cortex. 2000;10:272–84.

· Taha S. A., Fields H. L. Inhibitions of nucleus accumbens neurons encode a gating signal for reward-directed behavior. J Neurosci. 2006;26:217–22.

· Tanaka S. C., Doya K., Okada G., Ueda K., Okamoto Y., Yamawaki S. Prediction of immediate and future rewards differentially recruits cortico-basal ganglia loops. Nat Neurosci. 2004;7:887–93.

· Volkow N. D., Wang G. J., Telang F., Fowler J. S., Logan J., Childress A. R., Jayne M., Ma Y., Wong C. Cocaine cues and dopamine in dorsal striatum: Mechanism of craving in cocaine addiction. J Neurosci. 2006;26:6583–88.

Reviews and meta-analysis

· Barcelo, A. C., B. Filippini, et al. (2012). “The striatum and pain modulation.” Cell Mol Neurobiol 32(1): 1-12.

· Basar, K., T. Sesia, et al. (2010). “Nucleus accumbens and impulsivity.” Prog Neurobiol 92(4): 533-557.

· Cardinal, R. N., J. A. Parkinson, et al. (2002). “Emotion and motivation: the role of the amygdala, ventral striatum, and prefrontal cortex.” Neurosci Biobehav Rev 26(3): 321-352.

· Chase, H. W., S. B. Eickhoff, et al. (2011). “The neural basis of drug stimulus processing and craving: an activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis.” Biol Psychiatry 70(8): 785-793.

· Der-Avakian, A. and A. Markou (2012). “The neurobiology of anhedonia and other reward-related deficits.” Trends Neurosci 35(1): 68-77.

· Diekhof, E. K., L. Kaps, et al. (2012). “The role of the human ventral striatum and the medial orbitofrontal cortex in the representation of reward magnitude - an activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies of passive reward expectancy and outcome processing.” Neuropsychologia 50(7): 1252-1266.

· Groenewegen, H. J., C. I. Wright, et al. (1999). “Convergence and segregation of ventral striatal inputs and outputs.” Ann N Y Acad Sci 877: 49-63.

· Groenewegen, K. H., M. A. Dentener, et al. (2007). “Longitudinal follow-up of systemic inflammation after acute exacerbations of COPD.” Respir Med 101(11): 2409-2415.

· Haber, S. N. (2003). “The primate basal ganglia: parallel and integrative networks.” J Chem Neuroanat 26(4): 317-330.

· Hagelberg, N., S. K. Jaaskelainen, et al. (2004). “Striatal dopamine D2 receptors in modulation of pain in humans: a review.” Eur J Pharmacol 500(1-3): 187-192.

· Ikemoto, S. (2010). “Brain reward circuitry beyond the mesolimbic dopamine system: a neurobiological theory.” Neurosci Biobehav Rev 35(2): 129-150.

· Knutson, B. and J. C. Cooper (2005). “Functional magnetic resonance imaging of reward prediction.” Curr Opin Neurol 18(4): 411-417.

· Kober, H., L. F. Barrett, et al. (2008). “Functional grouping and cortical-subcortical interactions in emotion: a meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies.” Neuroimage 42(2): 998-1031.

· Kuhn, S. and J. Gallinat (2011). “Common biology of craving across legal and illegal drugs - a quantitative meta-analysis of cue-reactivity brain response.” Eur J Neurosci 33(7): 1318-1326.

· Kuhn, S. and J. Gallinat (2012). “The neural correlates of subjective pleasantness.” Neuroimage 61(1): 289-294.

· O'Doherty, J. P. (2004). “Reward representations and reward-related learning in the human brain: insights from neuroimaging.” Curr Opin Neurobiol 14(6): 769-776.

· Peters, J. and C. Buchel (2010). “Neural representations of subjective reward value.” Behav Brain Res 213(2): 135-141.

· Schultz, W. (2006). “Behavioral theories and the neurophysiology of reward.” Annu Rev Psychol 57: 87-115.

· Sweitzer, M. M., E. C. Donny, et al. (2012). “Imaging genetics and the neurobiological basis of individual differences in vulnerability to addiction.” Drug Alcohol Depend 123 Suppl 1: S59-71.

· van Kuyck, K., L. Gabriels, et al. (2007). “Behavioural and physiological effects of electrical stimulation in the nucleus accumbens: a review.” Acta Neurochir Suppl 97(Pt 2): 375-391.

· Volkow, N. D., J. S. Fowler, et al. (2004). “Dopamine in drug abuse and addiction: results from imaging studies and treatment implications.” Mol Psychiatry 9(6): 557-569.

· Volkow, N. D., J. S. Fowler, et al. (2007). “Dopamine in drug abuse and addiction: results of imaging studies and treatment implications.” Arch Neurol 64(11): 1575-1579.

· Volkow, N. D., G. J. Wang, et al. (2011). “Addiction: beyond dopamine reward circuitry.” Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108(37): 15037-15042.

· Willuhn, I., M. J. Wanat, et al. (2010). “Dopamine signaling in the nucleus accumbens of animals self-administering drugs of abuse.” Curr Top Behav Neurosci 3: 29-71.

Some seminal work or important papers

Reviews and meta-analysis

Papers by groups of functions


Inputs and Outputs from the Nucleus Accumbens

Extracted from Basar et al. 2010.

Extracted from Kuyck et al. 2007. Acta Neurochir Suppl (2007) 97(2): 375–391.

Extracted from Wang et al. 2012. J Physiol.

See also, from the BAMS (rat connectome) project the following links on the inputs and outputs Accumbens:

Name, and code Strength (L, M, H), Confidence (L, M, H), Transmitter(s)

Inputs and Outputs

Name, and code Strength (L, M, H), Confidence (L, M, H), Transmitter(s)

See this specific section in the following text: Neurobiology of Sensation and Reward. Gottfried JA, editor. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press; 2011. Chapter 11 Neuroanatomy of Reward: A View from the Ventral Striatum. By Suzanne N. Haber.

Please see:

Connections of the Ventral Striatum

Afferent Connections: Cortical Inputs

The VS is the main input structure of the ventral BG. Like the dorsal striatum, afferent projections to the VS are derived from three major sources: a massive, generally topographic input from cerebral cortex; a large input from the thalamus; and a smaller but critical input from the brainstem, primarily from the midbrain dopaminergic cells. Cortico-striatal terminals are organized in two projection patterns: focal projection fields and diffuse projections (Calzavara, Mailly, and Haber 2007; Haber et al. 2006).

It is the general distribution of the focal terminal fields that gives rise to the topography ascribed to the cortico-striatal projections. This organization is the foundation for the concept of parallel and segregated cortico-BG circuits. Together, these projections terminate primarily in the rostral, medial, and ventral parts of the striatum and define the ventral stratal territory (Haber et al. 1995a, 2006). The focal projection field from the vmPFC is the most limited (particularly from area 25) and is concentrated within, and just lateral to, the shell. The innervation of the shell receives the densest input from area 25, although fibers from areas 14, 32, and from agranular insular cortex also terminate here. In contrast, the central and lateral parts of the VS (including the ventral caudate nucleus and putamen) receive inputs from the OFC. These terminals also extend dorsally, along the medial caudate nucleus, but lateral to those from the vmPFC. There is some medial-to-lateral and rostral-to-caudal topographic organization of the OFC terminal field. Projections from the dACC (area 24b) extend from the rostral pole of the striatum to the anterior commissure and are located in both the central caudate nucleus and putamen. They primarily avoid the shell region. These fibers terminate somewhat lateral and dorsal to those from the OFC. Thus, the OFC terminal fields are positioned between the vmPFC and dACC.

Afferent Connections: Amygdala and Hippocampal Input

The main source of amygdala inputs to the VS are the basal nucleus and the magnocellular division of the accessory basal nucleus (Fudge et al. 2002; Russchen et al. 1985). The lateral nucleus has a relatively minor input to the VS. The basal and accessory basal nuclei innervate both the shell and ventromedial striatum outside the shell. The amygdala sends few fibers to the dorsal striatum in primates. In contrast to the amygdala, the hippocampus projects to a more limited region of the VS and is essentially confined to the shell region, where fibers overlap with those from the amygdala (Friedman, Aggleton, and Saunders 2002).

Afferent Connections: Thalamic Inputs

The VS receives dense projections from the midline and medial intralaminar thalamic nuclei, which are topographically organized (Giménez-Amaya et al. 1995). The shell of the nucleus accumbens receives the most limited projection, almost exclusively midline nuclei and the medial parafascicular nucleus. The medial wall of the caudate nucleus receives projections not only from these nuclei, but also from the central superior lateral nucleus. In contrast, the central and lateral parts of the VS receive their main input from the intralaminar nucleus, with a limited projection from the midline thalamic nuclei. In addition to the midline and intralaminar thalamostriatal projections, in primates there is a large input from the specific thalamic BG relay nuclei, the medial dorsalis nucleus (MD), and ventral anterior (VA) and ventral lateral (VL) nuclei (McFarland and Haber 2000, 2001). The VS receives these direct afferent projections primarily from the medial MD nucleus and a limited input from the magnocellular subdivision of the ventral anterior nucleus.

Efferent Connections

Efferent projections from the VS, like those from the dorsal striatum, project primarily to the pallidum and substantia nigra/VTA (Haber et al. 1990). Specifically, they terminate topographically in the subcommissural part of the globus pallidus (classically defined as the VP), the rostral pole of the external segment, and the rostromedial portion of the internal segment. The more central and caudal portions of the globus pallidus do not receive this input. VS projections to the substantia nigra are not as confined to a specific region as those to the globus pallidus. Although the densest terminal fields occur in the medial portion, numerous fibers also extend laterally to innervate a wide medio-lateral expanse of the dopamine neurons. This projection extends throughout the rostral-caudal extent of the substantia nigra. In addition to projections to the typical BG output structures, the VS also projects to non-BG regions. The shell sends fibers caudally and medial into the lateral hypothalamus. Projections from the medial part of the VS also project more caudally, terminating in the pedunculopontine nucleus and to some extent in the medial central gray. Axons from the medial VS (including the shell) travel to and terminate in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and parts of the ventral regions of the VS terminate in the nucleus basalis (Haber et al. 1990). This direct projection to the nucleus basalis in the basal forebrain is of particular interest, since it is the main source of cholinergic fibers to the cerebral cortex and the amygdala. Thus, the VS is in a position to influence cortex directly, without passing through the pallidal, thalamic loop (Beach, Tago, and McGeer 1987; Chang, Penny, and Kitai 1987; Haber 1987; Martinez-Murillo et al. 1988; Zaborszky and Cullinan 1992). Likewise, the projection to the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis indicates direct striatal influence on the extended amygdala.


Summary list

Function Accumbens / Ventral Striatum

- See this specific section in the following text: Neurobiology of Sensation and Reward. Gottfried JA, editor. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press; 2011. Chapter 11 Neuroanatomy of Reward: A View from the Ventral Striatum. By Suzanne N. Haber. Most important references cited here (see below). COPY LINK.

- See also The Ventral Striatum as an Interface Between the Limbic and Motor Systems By Henk J. Groenewegen. CNS Spectr 12:12. 2007. COPY PAPER HERE.

The nucleus accumbens (and the VS in general):

• Involved in reward prediction, reward anticipation and reward prediction errors, reward evaluation and incentive-based learning (Knutson et al. 2001; O’Doherty et al. 2004; Pagnoni et al. 2002; Tanaka et al. 2004; Schultz, 2000; Corlett et al. 2004; Elliott et al. 2003; Knutson et al. 2001; Schultz Tremblay, and Hollerman 2000; Tanaka et al. 2004). Central site for studying drug reinforcement and for the transition between drug use as a reward and as a habit (Olds and Milner, 1954; Kalivas, Volkow, and Seamans 2005; Taha and Fields 2006). Acquisition and development of drug addiction and drug-seeking behaviors (Belin and Everitt 2008; Everitt and Robbins 2005; Porrino et al. 2007; Volkow et al. 2006; Kuhnen and Knutson 2005; Volkow et al. 2005). • Based on the character of the afferents of the nucleus accumbens, this part of the ventral striatum may be viewed as a site for integration of signals with emotional content (amygdala); contextual information (hippocampus); motivational significance (dopaminergic inputs); information about the state of arousal (midline thalamus); and executive/cognitive information (prefrontal cortex). • The accumbens’ outputs, directly or via ventral pallidal and dopaminergic and non- dopaminergic nigral relays, lead to brain areas involved in basic functions, such as feeding and drinking behavior (lateral hypothalamus); motivational behavior (VTA and nigral dopaminergic neurons); locomotor behavior (caudal mesencephalon); and more complex cognitive and executive functions (via medial thalamic nuclei to the prefrontal cortex). Thus, Morgenson and colleagues original concept of the nucleus accumbens as a functional interface between the limbic and motor systems, in general terms, is still valid. • The VS contains a subterritory, the Shell*,* which plays a particularly important role in the circuitry underlying goal-directed behaviors, behavioral sensitization, and changes in affective states (Carlezon and Wise 1996; Ito, Robbins, and Everitt 2004), expression of certain innate, unconditioned behaviors, such as feeding or defensive behavior ( SEARCH REFS 33-39 in Groenewegen et al. 2007). The shell and core subregions play important but distinct roles in Pavlovian and instrumental conditioned learning that may be potentiated by psychostimulants (40-48 in Groenewegen et al. 2007). The core subregion seems to be preferentially involved in response-reinforcement learning, whereas the shell is not involved in motor or response learning, per se, rather, it integrates basic biological “drives” with the viscero- limbic and motor-effector systems. • Electrical or chemical stimulation of the nucleus accumbens → analgesic action (inhibition of the nociceptive jaw opening reflex) mediated by activation of its dopamine D2 receptors and transmitted through the indirect pathways of the basal ganglia and the medullary dorsal reticular nucleus (RVM) to the sensorial nuclei of the trigeminal nerve. Its mechanism of action was by inhibition of the nociceptive response of the second order neurons of the nucleus caudalis of the V par (Barcelo et al. 2012. Cell Mol Neurobiol). === Effects of stimulation === The following table 1 from Kuyck et al 2007, shows a summary of drug effects on intra-cranial self stimulation (ICSS) in the nucleus accumbens (NACC), including drug dose and administration route. === Effects of lesions/inactivation === From Kuyck et al. 2007. Lesion effects on Intra-cranial self stimulation (ICSS) in the Nucleus Accumbens (NACC). From Basar et al. 2010. Progress in Neurobiology 92 (2010) 533-557. === Other === ==== Coordinates ==== Coordinates (x, y, z): [0, 0, 0] , [0, 0, 0] The two coordinates of the superior and inferior parts of the ventral striatum were extracted from Di Martino, 2008. See above. Structural landmark provided above. See Di Martino et al. 2008 for left coordinates and more potential basal ganglia coordinates of interest. Specific study coordinates** (if not too many)

Study Description x y z
Di Martino 2008 func. connectivity inf ventral striatum (accumbens) 9 9 -8
Di Martino 2008 func. connectivity sup ventral striatum 10 15 0

List of Studies

Study list: Coordinate based

Neurosynth results for coordinate(s)for Ventral Striatum, and Accumbens

A Genetic Model for Understanding Higher Order Visual Processing: Functional Interactions of the Ventral Visual Stream in Williams Syndrome. Sarpal D; Buchsbaum BR; Kohn PD; Kippenhan JS; Mervis CB; Morris CA; Meyer-Lindenberg A; Berman KF. Cerebral Cortex 2008.

Action relationships concatenate representations of separate objects in the ventral visual system. Roberts KL; Humphreys GW NeuroImage. 2010

Activation in striatum and medial temporal lobe during sequence learning in younger and older adults: relations to performance. Rieckmann A; Fischer H; Backman L. NeuroImage 2010.

Activation in ventral prefrontal cortex is sensitive to genetic vulnerability for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Durston S; Mulder M; Casey BJ; Ziermans T; van Engeland H. Biological Psychiatry 2006.

An image-dependent representation of familiar and unfamiliar faces in the human ventral stream. Davies-Thompson J; Gouws A; Andrews TJ. Neuropsychologia 2009.

Art for reward's sake: visual art recruits the ventral striatum. Lacey S; Hagtvedt H; Patrick VM; Anderson A; Stilla R; Deshpande G; Hu X; Sato JR; Reddy S; Sathian K. NeuroImage 2011.

Assimilation and accommodation patterns in ventral occipitotemporal cortex in learning a second writing system. Nelson JR; Liu Y; Fiez J; Perfetti CA. Human Brain Mapping 2009.

BOLD Repetition Decreases in Object-Responsive Ventral Visual Areas Depend on Spatial Attention. Eger E; Henson RN; Driver J; Dolan RJ. Journal of Neurophysiology 2004.

Brain mediators of cardiovascular responses to social threat: part I: Reciprocal dorsal and ventral sub-regions of the medial prefrontal cortex and heart-rate reactivity. Wager TD; Waugh CE; Lindquist M; Noll DC; Fredrickson BL; Taylor SF NeuroImage 2009.

Cholinergic interneurons are differentially distributed in the human striatum. Bernacer J; Prensa L; Gimenez-Amaya JM. PLoS ONE 2007.

Contingency learning in human fear conditioning involves the ventral striatum. Klucken T; Tabbert K; Schweckendiek J; Merz CJ; Kagerer S; Vaitl D; Stark R Human Brain Mapping 2009.

Contributions of the hippocampus and the striatum to simple association and frequency-based learning. Amso D; Davidson MC; Johnson SP; Glover G; Casey BJ. NeuroImage 2005.

Deficit in schizophrenia to recruit the striatum in implicit learning: a functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation. Reiss JP; Campbell DW; Leslie WD; Paulus MP; Ryner LN; Polimeni JO; Foot BJ; Sareen J. Schizophrenia Research 2006.

Differential activation of the striatum for decision making and outcomes in a monetary task with gain and loss. Ino T; Nakai R; Azuma T; Kimura T; Fukuyama H. Cortex 2010.

Dissociating the Roles of Right Ventral Lateral and Dorsal Lateral Prefrontal Cortex in Generation and Maintenance of Hypotheses in Set-shift Problems. Goel V; Vartanian O. Cerebral Cortex 2005.

Dissociating the roles of the default-mode, dorsal, and ventral networks in episodic memory retrieval. Kim H NeuroImage 2010.

Dopamine Transmission in the Human Striatum during Monetary Reward Tasks. Zald DH; Boileau I; El-Dearedy W; Gunn R; McGlone F; Dichter GS; Dagher A. Journal of Neuroscience 2004.

Dopamine transporter gene variation modulates activation of striatum in youth with ADHD. Bedard AC; Schulz KP; Cook EH Jr; Fan J; Clerkin SM; Ivanov I; Halperin JM; Newcorn JH. NeuroImage 2010.

Dysfunction of ventral striatal reward prediction in schizophrenia. Juckel G; Schlagenhauf F; Koslowski M; Wustenberg T; Villringer A; Knutson B; Wrase J; Heinz A. NeuroImage 2006.

Effects of exogenous testosterone on the ventral striatal BOLD response during reward anticipation in healthy women. Hermans EJ; Bos PA; Ossewaarde L; Ramsey NF; Fernandez G; van Honk J. NeuroImage 2010.

Evidence for a different role of the ventral and dorsal medial prefrontal cortex for social reactive aggression: An interactive fMRI study. Lotze M; Veit R; Anders S; Birbaumer N. NeuroImage 2007.

Examining ventral and dorsal prefrontal function in bipolar disorder: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Frangou S; Kington J; Raymont V; Shergill SS. European Psychiatry 2008.

Executive function and error detection: The effect of motivation on cingulate and ventral striatum activity Simoes-Franklin C; Hester R; Shpaner M; Foxe JJ; Garavan H. Human Brain Mapping 2010.

Familiarity enhances invariance of face representations in human ventral visual cortex: fMRI evidence Eger E; Schweinberger SR; Dolan RJ; Henson RN NeuroImage 2005.

fMRI reveals how pain modulates visual object processing in the ventral visual stream. Bingel U; Rose M; Glascher J; Buchel C. Neuron 2007.

Foot, Hand, Face and Eye Representation in the Human Striatum. Cerebral Cortex 2003.

Function of striatum beyond inhibition and execution of motor responses. Vink M; Kahn RS; Raemaekers M; van den Heuvel M; Boersma M; Ramsey NF. Human Brain Mapping 2005.

Functional Connectivity of Human Striatum: A Resting State fMRI Study. Di Martino A; Scheres A; Margulies DS; Kelly AM; Uddin LQ; Shehzad Z; Biswal B; Walters JR; Castellanos FX; Milham MP. Cerebral Cortex 2008.

Hierarchical coding of characters in the ventral and dorsal visual streams of Chinese language processing. Chan ST; Tang SW; Tang KW; Lee WK; Lo SS; Kwong KK. NeuroImage 2009.

Individual attachment style modulates human amygdala and striatum activation during social appraisal. Vrticka P; Andersson F; Grandjean D; Sander D; Vuilleumier P. PLoS ONE 2008.

Interaction of Stimulus-Driven Reorienting and Expectation in Ventral and Dorsal Frontoparietal and Basal Ganglia-Cortical Networks. Shulman GL; Astafiev SV; Franke D; Pope DL; Snyder AZ; McAvoy MP; Corbetta M. Journal of Neuroscience 2009.

Interest in politics modulates neural activity in the amygdala and ventral striatum. Gozzi M; Zamboni G; Krueger F; Grafman J. Human Brain Mapping 2010.

Learning-related changes of brain activation in the visual ventral stream: an fMRI study of mirror reading skill. Mochizuki-Kawai H; Tsukiura T; Mochizuki S; Kawamura M. Brain Research 2006.

Mental rotation and object categorization share a common network of prefrontal and dorsal and ventral regions of posterior cortex. Schendan HE; Stern CE. NeuroImage 2007.

Movement-Specific Repetition Suppression in Ventral and Dorsal Premotor Cortex during Action Observation. Majdandzic J; Bekkering H; van Schie HT; Toni I. Cerebral Cortex 2009.

Net influx of plasma 6-[18F]fluoro-l-DOPA (FDOPA) to the ventral striatum correlates with prefrontal processing of affective stimuli. Siessmeier T; Kienast T; Wrase J; Larsen JL; Braus DF; Smolka MN; Buchholz HG; Schreckenberger M; Rosch F; Cumming P; Mann K; Bartenstein P; Heinz A. European Journal of Neuroscience 2006.

Prior auditory information shapes visual category-selectivity in ventral occipito-temporal cortex. Adam R; Noppeney U NeuroImage 2010.

Processing of social and monetary rewards in the human striatum. Izuma K; Saito DN; Sadato N. Neuron 2008.

Reading normal and degraded words: contribution of the dorsal and ventral visual pathways. Cohen L; Dehaene S; Vinckier F; Jobert A; Montavont A. NeuroImage 2008.

Retinotopic Organization of Human Ventral Visual Cortex. Arcaro MJ; McMains SA; Singer BD; Kastner S. Journal of Neuroscience 2009.

Self-appraisal decisions evoke dissociated dorsal-ventral aMPFC networks. Schmitz TW; Johnson SC. NeuroImage 2006.

Self-referential processing of negative stimuli within the ventral anterior cingulate gyrus and right amygdala. Yoshimura S; Ueda K; Suzuki S; Onoda K; Okamoto Y; Yamawaki S. Brain and Cognition 2009.

Sex specificity of ventral anterior cingulate cortex suppression during a cognitive task. Butler T; Imperato-McGinley J; Pan H; Voyer D; Cunningham-Bussel AC; Chang L; Zhu YS; Cordero JJ; Stern E; Silbersweig D. Human Brain Mapping 2007.

Sleep deprivation impairs object-selective attention: a view from the ventral visual cortex. Lim J; Tan JC; Parimal S; Dinges DF; Chee MW. PLoS ONE 2010.

Striatum forever, despite sequence learning variability: A random effect analysis of PET data. Human Brain Mapping 2000.

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Last modified: 2017/05/13 02:15