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The ventral pallidum (VP) is a structure within the basal ganglia of the brain. It is an output nucleus whose fibres project to thalamic nuclei, such as the ventral anterior nucleus, the ventrolateral nucleus, and the medial dorsal nucleus. The Ventral Pallidum is a component of the limbic loop of the basal ganglia, a pathway involved in the regulation of motivation, behaviour, and emotions. It is an important substrate for natural reward and drug addiction (Cromwell and Berridge, 1993; Johnson et al., 1996; Kalivas and Naka- mura, 1999; Stratford et al., 1999; Swanson, 2000; Watts, 2000; Berthoud, 2002; June et al., 2003; Caille and Parsons, 2004; Insel and Fernald, 2004; Koob, 2004; Tindell et al., 2004). Results from various studies support that the VP has roles in motivation for food, sex, drugs (heroin, cocaine, alcohol, phencyclidine, and others), and other rewards (Kalivas and Nakamura, 1999; Zahm, 2000; Kelley and Berridge, 2002; Smith and Berridge, 2001), such as brain stimulation reward (Panagis et al., 1995; McBride et al., 1999). The VP is part of the cortico-accumbo-thalamocortical loop of the basal ganglia. In the past the function of this region was thought to be a pure relay station in the process of limbic-motor integration. However, recent studies show that at the level of the VP motor behavior can be modulated. The stimulation and inhibition of the different transmitter systems converging in the VP have implications in repetitive, disinhibited, learning and reinforced behavior. Therefore, it has recently been involved in locomotion, reward-related behavior, prepulse inhibition, and memory.
Region of Interest image (ROI):
ventral pallidum [all] and title ventral pallidum [all] and projections [all] ventral pallidum [all] and connectivity ventral pallidum [all] and function and review
=Reviews on anatomy, physiology and function of the ventral pallidum:=
=Classic paper about :=
=Other subcortical inputs:= *
Gabaergic and cholinergic ouput neurons which innervate limbic structures, the mediodorsal thalamus, mesencephalic dopaminergic structures and motor regions in the brainstem (Groenewegen et al. 1993)
smith_2009.pdf * Movement * Necessary for Reward. Necessary for motivation to eat and hedonic impact. Necessary for reward learning and performance * Disinhibition of ventral pallidum from GABA suppression: stimulation of food ‘wanting’ (but not ‘liking’) * Ventral pallidum opioids: ‘liking’ and ‘wanting’ stimulation in a posterior hotspot * Accumbens–pallidum opioid interaction: asymmetric paths for ‘liking’ and ‘wanting’ * Neuronal activity in ventral pallidum hotspot codes reward * Ventral pallidum neurons encode reward hedonic ‘liking’ and incentive salience ‘wanting’ * Ventral pallidum neurons encode incentive sensitization and distinguish ‘wanting’ versus ‘liking’ enhancements * Ventral pallidum roles in affiliation and sex * The ventral pallidum as a limbic final common pathway
Coordinates (x, y, z): [18, 0, -6] , [-17, 0, -6] from WFU_PickAtlas anatomically based