Subthalamic area including subthalamic nucleus (STN)

Image and Location

from Dormont et al. (2004) 1516.full.pdf

from Benarroch (2008) neurology-2008-benarroch-1991-5.pdf

from Krack et al. (2010) 1-s2.0-s0166223610001050-main.pdf

Neurosynth structure image: N/A

Neurosynth connectivity image:

seed at (-12, -12, -4)


Searches so far:

Subthalamic nucleus[all] and review[all] Subthalamic nucleus[all] and optogenetics[all] Subthalamic nucleus[all] and connections[title]

Most important references

Baunez, C., J. Yelnik, et al. (2011). “Six questions on the subthalamic nucleus: lessons from animal models and from stimulated patients.” Neuroscience 198: 193-204. 1-s2.0-s0306452211011456-main.pdf

Benarroch, E. E. (2008). “Subthalamic nucleus and its connections: Anatomic substrate for the network effects of deep brain stimulation.” Neurology 70(21): 1991-1995. neurology-2008-benarroch-1991-5.pdf

DeLong, M. R. (2000). The basal ganglia. In E. R. Kandel, J. H. Schwartz, & T. M. Jessell, (Eds.), Principles of Neural Science. 4th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill. ch43.pdf

Krack, P., Hariz, M. I., Baunez, C., Guridi, J., & Obeso, J. A. (2010). Deep brain stimulation : from neurology to psychiatry ? Trends in Neurosciences, 33(10), 474-484. Elsevier Ltd. doi:10.1016/j.tins.2010.07.002 1-s2.0-s0166223610001050-main.pdf

This endnote libarary has pdfs.



See the figure from Benarroch (2008)

* excitatory

  • the internal and external segments of the globus pallidus (GPi and GPe)
  • substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) and compacta (SNc)
  • pedunculo-pontine nucleus


* excitatory

  • centromedian-parafascicular nucleus of the thalamus

* inhibitory

  • GPe

* modulatory

  • SNc, pedunculopontine nucleus


“The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a small but vitally important structure in the basal ganglia. Because of its central role in motor control, the STN is the target of deep-brain stimulation that alleviates severe motor symptoms in many levodopa-resistant patients with Parkinson’s disease. Unfortunately, deep-brain stimulation of the STN also comes at a cost. In particular, some patients with Parkinson’s disease experience a decline in cognitive functioning, whereas others may become depressed, experience hypersexuality, hypomania, and some even commit suicide (Burkhard et al., 2004; Temel et al., 2005). These undesirable and perhaps unexpected side-effects of deep-brain stimulation suggest that the STN regulates not only motor behavior but also cognitive and emotional processes, a suggestion consistent with one of the most influential theories of the STN (Alexander and Crutcher, 1990).” from Keuken et al., (2012) fnana-06-00014.pdf

“The subthalamic nucleus (STN) has been considered a motor structure for a long time. Over the last 20 years, anatomical and behavioral data have highlighted the position of the STN within a prefrontal-associative and a limbic loops, suggesting that the STN should play a critical role in frontal functions such as attention, inhibitory control (including impul- sive action, compulsivity, impulsive choice), and motivation.” from an abstract of Baunez and Lardeux (2011) fnsys-05-00083.pdf

“The subthalamic nucleus and the striatum in the basal ganglia mediate these cortical signals to achieve behavioral switching.” (Hikosaka & Isoda, 2010) - see the below figure 1-s2.0-s1364661310000276-main.pdf

Summary list

Lambert, C., L. Zrinzo, et al. (2012). “Confirmation of functional zones within the human subthalamic nucleus: patterns of connectivity and sub-parcellation using diffusion weighted imaging.” Neuroimage 60(1): 83-94. 1-s2.0-s1053811911013644-main.pdf

Three subdivisions suggested by Lambert et al. (2012)

STN: non-motor functions

Effects of stimulation

  • Mallet, L., M. Polosan, et al. (2008). “Subthalamic Nucleus Stimulation in Severe Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder.” New England Journal of Medicine 359(20): 2121-2134.
  • Mallet L, Schüpbach M, et al. (2007) Stimulation of subterritories of the subthalamic nucleus reveals its role in the integration of the emotional and motor aspects of behavior. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:10661–10666.
  • Inhibition:
    • Frank MJ, Samanta J, Moustafa AA, Sherman SJ (2007) Hold your horses: impulsivity, deep brain stimulation, and medication in Par- kinsonism. Science 318:1309–1312.
    • Hershey T et al. (2010) Mapping Go-No-Go performance within the subthalamic nucleus region. Brain 133:3625–3634.
    • Voon V et al. (2008) A multicentre study on suicide outcomes following subthalamic stimulation for Parkinson’s disease. Brain 131:2720 –2728.
    • Compulsivity: Winter C, Flash S, Klavir O, Klein J, Sohr R, Joel D (2008a) The role of the subthalamic nucleus in ’compulsive’ behavior in rats. Eur J Neurosci 27:1902–1911.
  • Motivation:
    • Walker HC, Lyerly M, Cutter G, Hagood J, Stover NP, Guthrie SL, Guthrie BL, Watts RL (2009) Weight changes associated with unilateral STN DBS and advanced PD. Parkinsonism Relat Disord 15:709 –711.
    • Rouaud T, Lardeux S, Panayotis N, Paleressompoulle D, Cador M, Baunez C (2010) Reducing the desire for cocaine with subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:1196 –1200.

Effects of lesions/inactivation

  • Attention:
    • Lindsley DF, Barton RJ, Atkins RJ (1970) Effects of subthalamic lesions on peripheral and central arousal thresholds in cats. Exp Neurol 26:109–119.
    • Baunez C, Robbins TW (1997) Bilateral lesions of the subthalamic nucleus induce multiple deficits in an attentional task in rats. Eur J Neurosci 9:2086–2099.
    • Chudasama Y, Baunez C, Robbins TW (2003) Functional disconnection of the medial prefrontal cortex and subthalamic nucleus in attentional performance: evidence for corticosubthalamic interaction. J Neurosci 23:5477–5485.
  • Inhibition control:
    • Phillips JM, Brown VJ (1999) Reaction time performance following unilateral striatal dopamine depletion and lesions of the subthalamic nucleus in the rat. Eur J Neurosci 11:1003–1010.
  • Motivation:
    • Uslaner JM, Dell’Orco JM, Pevzner A, Robinson TE (2008) The influence of subthalamic nucleus lesions on sign-tracking to stimuli paired with food and drug rewards: facilitation of incentive salience attribution? Neuropsychopharmacology 33:2352–2361.
    • Baunez C, Dias C, Cador M, Amalric M (2005) The subthalamic nucleus exerts opposite control on cocaine and ‘natural’ rewards. Nat Neurosci 8:484–489.
    • Absher JR, Vogt BA, Clark DG, Flowers DL, Gorman DG, Keyes JW, Wood FB (2000) Hypersexuality and hemiballism due to subthalamic infarction. Neuropsychiatry Neuropsychol Behav Neurol 13:220 –229.
  • Working memory:
    • El Massioui N, Chéruel F, Faure A, Conde F (2007) Learning and memory dissociation in rats with lesions to the subthalamic nucleus or to the dorsal striatum. Neuroscience 147:906–918.
  • Sexuality:
    • Romito LM, Raja M, Daniele A, Contarino MF, Bentivoglio AR, Barbier A, Scerrati M, Albanese A (2002) Transient mania with hypersexuality after surgery for high frequency stimulation of the subtha- lamic nucleus in Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord 17:1371–1374.

Effects of microinjection

  • Baunez C, Robbins TW (1999b) Effects of transient inactivation of the subthalamic nucleus by local muscimol and APV infusions on performance on the five choice serial reaction time task in rats. Psychopharmacology 141:57–65.


  • List with references.


STN: Motor functions

Effects of stimulation

  • “the STN is the target of deep-brain stimulation that alleviates severe motor symptoms in many levodopa-resistant patients with Parkinson’s disease” (Keuken et al., 2012)
    • Benazzouz A, Gross C, Féger J, Boraud T, Bioulac B (1993) Reversal of rigidity and improvement of motor performance by subthalamic high-frequency stimulation in MPTP-treated monkeys. Eur J Neu- rosci 5:382–389.
    • Limousin P, Pollak P, Benazzouz A, Hoffmann D, Le Bas JF, Brous- solle E, Perret JE, Benabid AL (1995) Effect on parkinsonian signs and symptoms of bilateral subthalamic nucleus stimulation. Lancet 345:91–95.

Effects of lesions/inactivation

  • STN lesion could induce ballism (rat and monkey)
    • Whittier JR (1947) Ballism and the subthalamic nucleus (nucleus hypothalamicus; corpus luyiiI). Arch Neurol Psychiatry 58:672–692.
    • Whittier JR, Mettler FA (1949a) Studies on the subthalamus of the rhesus monkey. 1. Anatomy and fiber connections of the subthalamic nucleus of Luys. J Comp Neurol 90:281–317.
    • Whittier JR, Mettler FA (1949b) Studies on the subthalamus of the rhesus monkey. II. Hyperkinesia and other physiologic effects of suthalamic lesions, with special reference to the subthalamic nucleus of Luys. J Comp Neurol 90:319–372.
    • Baunez C, Nieoullon A, Amalric M (1995) In a rat model of parkinson- ism, lesions of the subthalamic nucleus reverse increases of reac- tion time but induce a dramatic premature responding deficit. J Neurosci 15:6531–6541.
  • MPTP monkeys (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP): responsible of the death of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta)
    • Bergman H, Wichmann T, DeLong MR (1990) Reversal of experimen- tal parkinsonism by lesions of the subthalamic nucleus. Science 249:1436 –1438.

Effects of microinjection

  • Graham WC, Robertson RG, Sambrook MA, Crossman AR (1990) Injection of excitatory amino acid antagonists into the medial pal- lidal segment of a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) treated primate reverses motor symptoms of Parkinson- ism. Life Sci 47:PL91–PL97.
  • Levy R, Lang AE, Dostrovsky JO, Pahapill P, Romas J, Saint-Cyr J, Hutchison WD, Lozano AM (2001) Lidocaine and muscimol micro- injections in subthalamic nucleus reverse parkinsonian symptoms. Brain 124:2105–2118.


  • Gradinaru, V., M. Mogri, et al. (2009). “Optical deconstruction of parkinsonian neural circuitry.” Science 324(5925): 354-359.


Studies activating


Coordinates (x, y, z): from Lehericy et al.(2006) cereb._cortex-2006-lehe_ricy-149-61.pdf

[-12, -12, -4] , [12, -12, -5]

Specific study coordinates

from Lehericy et al.(2006)

Study Description x (L/R) y z
Lehericy et al., 2006 complex motor task - rest -12/10 -12/-12 -4/-6
Lehericy et al., 2006 complex motor task - simple -12/14 -12/-12 -4/-4

There is an atlas that are publicly avaiable * AFNI TTatlas:

List of Studies

Specific, key studies

* Baunez, C. and S. Lardeux (2011). “Frontal cortex-like functions of the subthalamic nucleus.” Front Syst Neurosci 5: 83. * Baunez, C., J. Yelnik, et al. (2011). “Six questions on the subthalamic nucleus: lessons from animal models and from stimulated patients.” Neuroscience 198: 193-204. * Benarroch, E. E. (2008). “Subthalamic nucleus and its connections: Anatomic substrate for the network effects of deep brain stimulation.” Neurology 70(21): 1991-1995. * Bergman, H., T. Wichmann, et al. (1990). “Reversal of experimental parkinsonism by lesions of the subthalamic nucleus.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 249: 1436-1438. * Devergnas, A. and T. Wichmann (2011). “Cortical potentials evoked by deep brain stimulation in the subthalamic area.” Front Syst Neurosci 5: 30. * Dormont, D., K. G. Ricciardi, et al. (2004). “Is the subthalamic nucleus hypointense on T2-weighted images? A correlation study using MR imaging and stereotactic atlas data.” AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology 25: 1516-1523. * Fasano, A., A. Daniele, et al. (2012). “Treatment of motor and non-motor features of Parkinson's disease with deep brain stimulation.” Lancet Neurol 11(5): 429-442. * Garcia-Munoz, M., L. Carrillo-Reid, et al. (2010). “Functional anatomy: dynamic States in Basal Ganglia circuits.” Front Neuroanat 4: 144. * Gradinaru, V., M. Mogri, et al. (2009). “Optical deconstruction of parkinsonian neural circuitry.” Science 324(5925): 354-359. * Hikosaka, O. and M. Isoda (2010). “Switching from automatic to controlled behavior: cortico-basal ganglia mechanisms.” Trends Cogn Sci 14(4): 154-161. * Keuken, M. C., H. B. M. Uylings, et al. (2012). “Are there three subdivisions in the primate subthalamic nucleus?” Frontiers in neuroanatomy 6: 14. * Krack, P., M. I. Hariz, et al. (2010). “Deep brain stimulation : from neurology to psychiatry ?” Trends in Neurosciences 33: 474-484. * Lambert, C., L. Zrinzo, et al. (2012). “Confirmation of functional zones within the human subthalamic nucleus: patterns of connectivity and sub-parcellation using diffusion weighted imaging.” Neuroimage 60(1): 83-94. * Lehéricy, S., E. Bardinet, et al. (2006). “Motor control in basal ganglia circuits using fMRI and brain atlas approaches.” Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991) 16: 149-161. * Lim, L. W., A. Blokland, et al. (2010). “Attenuation of fear-like response by escitalopram treatment after electrical stimulation of the midbrain dorsolateral periaqueductal gray.” Experimental neurology 226: 293-300. * Mallet, L., M. Polosan, et al. (2008). “Subthalamic Nucleus Stimulation in Severe Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder.” New England Journal of Medicine 359(20): 2121-2134. * Massey, L. a., M. a. Miranda, et al. (2012). “High resolution MR anatomy of the subthalamic nucleus: imaging at 9.4 T with histological validation.” NeuroImage 59: 2035-2044. * Mathai, A. and Y. Smith (2011). “The corticostriatal and corticosubthalamic pathways: two entries, one target. So what?” Front Syst Neurosci 5: 64. * Peled, A. (2011). “Optogenetic neuronal control in schizophrenia.” Med Hypotheses 76(6): 914-921. * Rommelfanger, K. S. and T. Wichmann (2010). “Extrastriatal dopaminergic circuits of the Basal Ganglia.” Front Neuroanat 4: 139. * Slavin, K. V., K. R. Thulborn, et al. (2006). “Direct visualization of the human subthalamic nucleus with 3T MR imaging.” AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology 27: 80-84. * Volkmann, J., C. Daniels, et al. (2010). “Neuropsychiatric effects of subthalamic neurostimulation in Parkinson disease.” Nat Rev Neurol 6(9): 487-498. * Wei-gao, S., W. Hai-yang, et al. (2009). “Stereotactic localization and visualization of the subthalamic nucleus.” 122: 2438-2443. * Whitmer, D. and C. N. White (2012). “Evidence of human subthalamic nucleus involvement in decision making.” The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 32: 8753-8755. * Witt, K., C. Daniels, et al. (2012). “Factors associated with neuropsychiatric side effects after STN-DBS in Parkinson's disease.” Parkinsonism Relat Disord 18 Suppl 1: S168-170.

Study list: Coordinate based

Neurosynth results for coordinate(s)

Title; Author; Journal; Year; PMD

A common left occipito-temporal dysfunction in developmental dyslexia and acquired letter-by-letter reading? Richlan F; Sturm D; Schurz M; Kronbichler M; Ladurner G; Wimmer H PLoS ONE 2010 20711448 A core system for the implementation of task sets Dosenbach NU; Visscher KM; Palmer ED; Miezin FM; Wenger KK; Kang HC; Burgund ED; Grimes AL; Schlaggar BL; Petersen SE Neuron 2006 16731517 A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study on the Neural Mechanisms of Hyperalgesic Nocebo Effect Kong J; Gollub RL; Polich G; Kirsch I; Laviolette P; Vangel M; Rosen B; Kaptchuk TJ Journal of Neuroscience 2008 19052227 A longitudinal fMRI study on motor activity in patients with multiple sclerosis Pantano P; Mainero C; Lenzi D; Caramia F; Iannetti GD; Piattella MC; Pestalozza I; Di Legge S; Bozzao L; Pozzilli C Brain 2005 15901646 A meta-analytic study of changes in brain activation in depression Fitzgerald PB; Laird AR; Maller J; Daskalakis ZJ Human Brain Mapping 2008 17598168 A systematic review and quantitative appraisal of fMRI studies of verbal fluency: Role of the left inferior frontal gyrus Costafreda SG; Fu CH; Lee L; Everitt B; Brammer MJ; David AS Human Brain Mapping 2006 16511886 Abnormal object recall and anterior cingulate overactivation correlate with formal thought disorder in schizophrenia Assaf M; Rivkin PR; Kuzu CH; Calhoun VD; Kraut MA; Groth KM; Yassa MA; Hart J Jr; Pearlson GD Biological Psychiatry 2006 16199012 Absolute coding of stimulus novelty in the human substantia nigra/VTA Bunzeck N; Duzel E Neuron 2006 16880131 Activation of olfactory and trigeminal cortical areas following stimulation of the nasal mucosa with low concentrations of S(-)-nicotine vapor-An fMRI study on chemosensory perception Albrecht J; Kopietz R; Linn J; Sakar V; Anzinger A; Schreder T; Pollatos O; Bruckmann H; Kobal G; Wiesmann M Human Brain Mapping 2009 18381635 Activity and connectivity of brain mood regulating circuit in depression: a functional magnetic resonance study Anand A; Li Y; Wang Y; Wu J; Gao S; Bukhari L; Mathews VP; Kalnin A; Lowe MJ Biological Psychiatry 2005 15866546 Activity in the hippocampus and neocortical working memory regions predicts successful associative memory for temporally discontiguous events Hales JB; Brewer JB Neuropsychologia 2010 20667491 Acute psychological stress reduces working memory-related activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex Qin S; Hermans EJ; van Marle HJ; Luo J; Fernandez G Biological Psychiatry 2009 19403118 ADHD related behaviors are associated with brain activation in the reward system Stark R; Bauer E; Merz CJ; Zimmermann M; Reuter M; Plichta MM; Kirsch P; Lesch KP; Fallgatter AJ; Vaitl D; Herrmann MJ Neuropsychologia 2011 21163276 Age-effects on associative object-location memory Meulenbroek O; Kessels RP; de Rover M; Petersson KM; Rikkert MG; Rijpkema M; Fernandez G Brain Research 2010 20018180 Age-related changes in word retrieval: role of bilateral frontal and subcortical networks Wierenga CE; Benjamin M; Gopinath K; Perlstein WM; Leonard CM; Rothi LJ; Conway T; Cato MA; Briggs R; Crosson B Neurobiology of Aging 2008 17147975 Age-related functional changes in gustatory and reward processing regions: An fMRI study Jacobson A; Green E; Murphy C NeuroImage 2010 20472070 Altered Effective Connectivity within the Language Network in Primary Progressive Aphasia Sonty SP; Mesulam MM; Weintraub S; Johnson NA; Parrish TB; Gitelman DR Journal of Neuroscience 2007 17287508 Altered intrinsic functional connectivity of anterior and posterior insula regions in high-functioning participants with autism spectrum disorder Ebisch SJ; Gallese V; Willems RM; Mantini D; Groen WB; Romani GL; Buitelaar JK; Bekkering H Human Brain Mapping 2010 20645311 Amygdala Activity Is Associated with the Successful Encoding of Item, But Not Source, Information for Positive and Negative Stimuli Kensinger EA; Schacter DL Journal of Neuroscience 2006 16510734 Amygdala and nucleus accumbens in responses to receipt and omission of gains in adults and adolescents Ernst M; Nelson EE; Jazbec S; McClure EB; Monk CS; Leibenluft E; Blair J; Pine DS NeuroImage 2005 15850746 Amygdala and orbitofrontal reactivity to social threat in individuals with impulsive aggression Coccaro EF; McCloskey MS; Fitzgerald DA; Phan KL Biological Psychiatry 2007 17210136 Amygdala function in adolescents with congenital adrenal hyperplasia: a model for the study of early steroid abnormalities Ernst M; Maheu FS; Schroth E; Hardin J; Golan LG; Cameron J; Allen R; Holzer S; Nelson E; Pine DS; Merke DP Neuropsychologia 2007 17336344 Amygdala integrates emotional expression and gaze direction in response to dynamic facial expressions Sato W; Kochiyama T; Uono S; Yoshikawa S NeuroImage 2010 20096793 Amygdala responses to emotional faces in twins discordant or concordant for the risk for anxiety and depression Wolfensberger SP; Veltman DJ; Hoogendijk WJ; Boomsma DI; de Geus EJ NeuroImage 2008 18396414 Amygdala responses to positively and negatively valenced baby faces in healthy female volunteers: influences of individual differences in harm avoidance Baeken C; De Raedt R; Ramsey N; Van Schuerbeek P; Hermes D; Bossuyt A; Leyman L; Vanderhasselt MA; De Mey J; Luypaert R Brain Research 2009 19679112 Amygdala tractography predicts functional connectivity and learning during feedback-guided decision-making Cohen MX; Elger CE; Weber B NeuroImage 2008 17997112 Amygdalar modulation of frontotemporal connectivity during the inkblot test Asari T; Konishi S; Jimura K; Chikazoe J; Nakamura N; Miyashita Y Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging 2010 20456928 An event-related fMRI study of the neural networks underlying the encoding, maintenance, and retrieval phase in a delayed-match-to-sample task Habeck C; Rakitin BC; Moeller J; Scarmeas N; Zarahn E; Brown T; Stern Y Cognitive Brain Research 2005 15820629 An fMRI investigation of procedural learning in unaffected siblings of individuals with schizophrenia Woodward ND; Tibbo P; Purdon SE Schizophrenia Research 2007 17544630 An fMRI investigation of syllable sequence production Bohland JW; Guenther FH NeuroImage 2006 16730195 An fMRI study of syntactic layers: sentential and lexical aspects of embedding Shetreet E; Friedmann N; Hadar U NeuroImage 2009 19595775 An fMRI study of theory of mind in schizophrenic patients with “passivity” symptoms Brune M; Lissek S; Fuchs N; Witthaus H; Peters S; Nicolas V; Juckel G; Tegenthoff M Neuropsychologia 2008 18329671 An fMRI study on the interaction and dissociation between expectation of pain relief and acupuncture treatment Kong J; Kaptchuk TJ; Polich G; Kirsch I; Vangel M; Zyloney C; Rosen B; Gollub RL NeuroImage 2009 19501656 Anterior prefrontal cortex and the recollection of contextual information Simons JS; Owen AM; Fletcher PC; Burgess PW Neuropsychologia 2005 16154453 Anterior prefrontal involvement in episodic retrieval reflects contextual interference King JA; Hartley T; Spiers HJ; Maguire EA; Burgess N NeuroImage 2005 16027012 Anticipating instrumentally obtained and passively-received rewards: a factorial fMRI investigation Bjork JM; Hommer DW Behavioural Brain Research 2007 17140674 Anticipation of novelty recruits reward system and hippocampus while promoting recollection Wittmann BC; Bunzeck N; Dolan RJ; Duzel E NeuroImage 2007 17764976 Anticipatory Activity in Anterior Cingulate Cortex Can Be Independent of Conflict and Error Likelihood Aarts E; Roelofs A; van Turennout M Journal of Neuroscience 2008 18448644 Art for reward's sake: visual art recruits the ventral striatum Lacey S; Hagtvedt H; Patrick VM; Anderson A; Stilla R; Deshpande G; Hu X; Sato JR; Reddy S; Sathian K NeuroImage 2011 21111833 Asymmetric modulation of human visual cortex activity during 10 degrees lateral gaze (fMRI study) Deutschlander A; Marx E; Stephan T; Riedel E; Wiesmann M; Dieterich M; Brandt T NeuroImage 2005 16005247 Auditory orienting and inhibition of return in mild traumatic brain injury: A FMRI study Mayer AR; Mannell MV; Ling J; Elgie R; Gasparovic C; Phillips JP; Doezema D; Yeo RA Human Brain Mapping 2009 19554558 Auditory temporal expectations modulate activity in visual cortex Bueti D; Macaluso E NeuroImage 2010 20298791 Basal ganglia and frontal involvement in self-generated and externally-triggered finger movements in the dominant and non-dominant hand Francois-Brosseau FE; Martinu K; Strafella AP; Petrides M; Simard F; Monchi O European Journal of Neuroscience 2009 19302163 Behavioral and Neural Evidence of Incentive Bias for Immediate Rewards Relative to Preference-Matched Delayed Rewards Luo S; Ainslie G; Giragosian L; Monterosso JR Journal of Neuroscience 2009 19940177 Bifurcation analysis of neural mass models: Impact of extrinsic inputs and dendritic time constants Spiegler A; Kiebel SJ; Atay FM; Knosche TR NeuroImage 2010 20045068 Brain activation and hypothalamic functional connectivity during human non-rapid eye movement sleep: an EEG/fMRI study Kaufmann C; Wehrle R; Wetter TC; Holsboer F; Auer DP; Pollmacher T; Czisch M Brain 2006 16339798 Brain activation associated with evaluative processes of guilt and embarrassment: an fMRI study Takahashi H; Yahata N; Koeda M; Matsuda T; Asai K; Okubo Y NeuroImage 2004 15528097 Brain Activation during Anticipation of Sound Sequences Leaver AM; Van Lare J; Zielinski B; Halpern AR; Rauschecker JP Journal of Neuroscience 2009 19244522 Brain activation during execution and motor imagery of novel and skilled sequential hand movements Lacourse MG; Orr EL; Cramer SC; Cohen MJ NeuroImage 2005 16046149 Brain Activation during Input from Mechanoinsensitive versus Polymodal C-Nociceptors Ruehle BS; Handwerker HO; Lennerz JK; Ringler R; Forster C Journal of Neuroscience 2006 16707801 Brain activation of lower extremity movement in chronically impaired stroke survivors Luft AR; Forrester L; Macko RF; McCombe-Waller S; Whitall J; Villagra F; Hanley DF NeuroImage 2005 15862218 Brain activity associated with the electrodermal reactivity to acute heat pain Dube AA; Duquette M; Roy M; Lepore F; Duncan G; Rainville P NeuroImage 2009 19027077 Brain anatomy differences in childhood stuttering Chang SE; Erickson KI; Ambrose NG; Hasegawa-Johnson MA; Ludlow CL NeuroImage 2008 18023366 Brain imaging of mechanically induced muscle versus cutaneous pain Uematsu H; Shibata M; Miyauchi S; Mashimo T Neuroscience Research 2011 21291923 Brain mechanisms for mood congruent memory facilitation Lewis PA; Critchley HD; Smith AP; Dolan RJ NeuroImage 2005 15850739 Brain mechanisms for preparing increasingly complex sensory to motor transformations Gorbet DJ; Staines WR; Sergio LE NeuroImage 2004 15528110 Brain Mechanisms of Perceiving Tools and Imagining Tool Use Acts: a functional MRI Study Wadsworth HM; Kana RK Neuropsychologia 2011 21419144 Brain network dynamics during error commission Stevens MC; Kiehl KA; Pearlson GD; Calhoun VD Human Brain Mapping 2009 17979124 CASL fMRI of subcortico-cortical perfusion changes during memory-guided finger sequences Garraux G; Hallett M; Talagala SL NeuroImage 2005 15734349 Central representation of hyperalgesia from myofascial trigger point Niddam DM; Chan RC; Lee SH; Yeh TC; Hsieh JC NeuroImage 2008 17999939 Cerebral regions processing first- and higher-order motion in an opposed-direction discrimination task European Journal of Neuroscience 2003 Changes in cerebral activations during movement execution and imagery after parietal cortex TMS interleaved with 3T MRI de Vries PM; de Jong BM; Bohning DE; Walker JA; George MS; Leenders KL Brain Research 2009 19523932 Changes of brain activation pre- post short-term psychodynamic inpatient psychotherapy: an fMRI study of panic disorder patients Beutel ME; Stark R; Pan H; Silbersweig D; Dietrich S Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging 2010 20933374 Characterizing spatial and temporal features of autobiographical memory retrieval networks: a partial least squares approach Addis DR; McIntosh AR; Moscovitch M; Crawley AP; McAndrews MP NeuroImage 2004 15589110 Clustered functional MRI of overt speech production Soros P; Sokoloff LG; Bose A; McIntosh AR; Graham SJ; Stuss DT NeuroImage 2006 16631384 Common neural substrates support speech and non-speech vocal tract gestures Chang SE; Kenney MK; Loucks TM; Poletto CJ; Ludlow CL NeuroImage 2009 19327400 Common neural systems for contact heat and laser pain stimulation reveal higher-level pain processing Helmchen C; Mohr C; Roehl M; Bingel U; Lorenz J; Buchel C Human Brain Mapping 2008 17924552 Compassionate attitude towards others' suffering activates the mesolimbic neural system Kim JW; Kim SE; Kim JJ; Jeong B; Park CH; Son AR; Song JE; Ki SW Neuropsychologia 2009 19428038 Complex span tasks and hippocampal recruitment during working memory Faraco CC; Unsworth N; Langley J; Terry D; Li K; Zhang D; Liu T; Miller LS NeuroImage 2011 21182968 Compromised fronto-striatal functioning in HIV: an fMRI investigation of semantic event sequencing Melrose RJ; Tinaz S; Castelo JM; Courtney MG; Stern CE Behavioural Brain Research 2008 18242723 COMT Val(108/158)Met polymorphism effects on emotional brain function and negativity bias Williams LM; Gatt JM; Grieve SM; Dobson-Stone C; Paul RH; Gordon E; Schofield PR NeuroImage 2010 20139013 Connectivity of the primate superior colliculus mapped by concurrent microstimulation and event-related FMRI Field CB; Johnston K; Gati JS; Menon RS; Everling S PLoS ONE 2008 19079541 Conscious recollection and illusory recognition: an event-related fMRI study European Journal of Neuroscience 2001 Constructive episodic simulation of the future and the past: distinct subsystems of a core brain network mediate imagining and remembering Addis DR; Pan L; Vu MA; Laiser N; Schacter DL Neuropsychologia 2009 19041331 Correlations of interictal FDG-PET metabolism and ictal SPECT perfusion changes in human temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis Nelissen N; Van Paesschen W; Baete K; Van Laere K; Palmini A; Van Billoen H; Dupont P NeuroImage 2006 16762567 Cortical activation in response to pure taste stimuli during the physiological states of hunger and satiety Haase L; Cerf-Ducastel B; Murphy C NeuroImage 2009 19007893 Cortical activity in Parkinson's disease during executive processing depends on striatal involvement Monchi O; Petrides M; Mejia-Constain B; Strafella AP Brain 2007 17121746 Cortical effects of anticipation and endogenous modulation of visceral pain assessed by functional brain MRI in irritable bowel syndrome patients and healthy controls Song GH; Venkatraman V; Ho KY; Chee MW; Yeoh KG; Wilder-Smith CH Pain 2006 16846694 Cortical processing of visceral and somatic stimulation: differentiating pain intensity from unpleasantness Dunckley P; Wise RG; Aziz Q; Painter D; Brooks J; Tracey I; Chang L Neuroscience 2005 15896917 Cortical recruitment during selective attention in multiple sclerosis: an fMRI investigation of individual differences Prakash RS; Erickson KI; Snook EM; Colcombe SJ; Motl RW; 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