Located posterior to the VTA, the RMTg (rostromedial tegmental nucleus) contains primarily GABAergic neurons. RMTg neurons are excited by shock-predictive neurons, and a smaller proportion are excited by reward omission. RMTg receives input from a wide range of regions that respond to aversive stimuli, such as the PAG, and lateral habenula, and sends output to midbrain and brainstem regions including the ventral pallidum, VTA/SNc and dorsal raphe nucleus.

Image and Location

Ikemoto 2010(ikemoto10.pdf) Black: Reciprocal connections White: Efferents from RMTg Gray: Afferents to RMTg Neurosynth structure image: Neurosynth connectivity image:


Searches so far:

word [search_in] and/or/not_operators word [all] e.g., RVM [all] and Fields [author]

Most important references

(classic papers, best papers) APA 5th format from Endnote, e.g.,

Fields, H. L. (2000). Pain modulation: expectation, opioid analgesia and virtual pain.Progress in brain research, 122, 245-253.


Inputs and Outputs



Summary list

Excitation to aversive stimuli Inhibition of VTA Passive fear responses Drug addiction and withdrawal responses

Excitation to aversive/non-rewarding stimuli

Effects of stimulation

*Stimulation of habenula neurons induced stimulation of RMTg neurons (particularly the “reward negative” neurons, excited by a target predicting no reward). Stimulation of RMTg induced inhibition of dopamine neurons. (Jhou et al 2011)

Effects of lesions/inactivation

  • Lesions to RMTg reduced passive responses to fear, including freezing and open-arm avoidance in the plus maze, but had no effect on or sometimes enhanced active fear behaviors (Lavezzi Zahm 2011)


Drug addiction/withdrawal

Effects of microinjection

  • Opiate injection in RMTg resulted in conditioned place preference and induces intracranial self-administration (Jhou 2009)


  • Methamphetamine injection induces c-Fos in RMTg (Lecca 2011)


Studies activating


Coordinates (x, y, z): [0, 0, 0] , [0, 0, 0] Say how overall coordinates were derived here (single study? average? structural landmark?)

Specific study coordinates (if not too many)

Study Description x y z
1st Author Name 20xx Contrast Descrip 0 0 0
1st Author Name 20xx Contrast Descrip 0 0 0
1st Author Name 20xx Contrast Descrip 0 0 0

List of Studies

Specific, key studies

Hong, S., Jhou, T. C., Smith, M., Saleem, K. S., & Hikosaka, O. (2011). Negative Reward Signals from the Lateral Habenula to Dopamine Neurons Are Mediated by Rostromedial Tegmental Nucleus in Primates. Journal of Neuroscience, 31(32), 11457-11471. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1384-11.2011 Jhou, T. C., Geisler, S., Marinelli, M., Degarmo, B. a, & Zahm, D. S. (2009). The mesopontine rostromedial tegmental nucleus: A structure targeted by the lateral habenula that projects to the ventral tegmental area of Tsai and substantia nigra compacta. The Journal of comparative neurology, 513(6), 566-96. doi:10.1002/cne.21891 Ikemoto, S. (2010). Brain reward circuitry beyond the mesolimbic dopamine system: a neurobiological theory. Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews, 35(2), 129-50. Elsevier Ltd. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2010.02.001 ikemoto10.pdf
Lecca, S., Melis, M., Luchicchi, A., Ennas, M. G., Castelli, M. P., Muntoni, A. L., & Pistis, M. (2011). Effects of drugs of abuse on putative rostromedial tegmental neurons, inhibitory afferents to midbrain dopamine cells. Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology, 36(3), 589-602. Nature Publishing Group. doi:10.1038/npp.2010.190 Lavezzi, H. N., & Zahm, D. S. (2011). The mesopontine rostromedial tegmental nucleus: an integrative modulator of the reward system. Basal ganglia, 1(4), 191-200. Elsevier GmbH. doi:10.1016/j.baga.2011.08.003

Study list: Coordinate based

Neurosynth results for coordinate(s)

<list studies here from Neurosynth database>

Last modified: 2017/05/13 02:15