The raphe nuclei are a series of seven nuclei located in the medial portion of the reticular formation. In order from caudal to rostral, the raphe nuclei are known as the nucleus raphe obscurus, the raphe magnus, the raphe pontis, the raphe pallidus, the nucleus centralis superior, nucleus raphe dorsalis, nuclei linearis intermedius and linearis rostralis. Some scientists chose to group the linearis nuclei into one nucleus, shrinking the number of raphe to seven, e.g., NeuroNames makes the following ordering:
Raphe nuclei of medulla Nucleus raphe obscurus (nucleus raphe obscurus) (B2 in Naidich) Nucleus raphe magnus (raphe magnus) (B3 in Naidich) Nucleus pallidus (raphe pallidus) (B1 in Naidich) Raphe nuclei of the pontine reticular formation Pontine raphe nucleus (raphe pontis) (B5 in Naidich) Inferior central nucleus (not in Naidich) Raphe nuclei of the midbrain reticular formation Superior central nucleus (nucleus centralis superior)(B6, B8 in Naidich) Dorsal raphe nucleus (nucleus raphe dorsalis)(B7 in Naidich)
The dorsal raphe nucleus is one of the seven bilateral brainstem nuclei located in the ventral periaqueductal grey matter of the mesencephalon, with a caudal tip projecting into the pons. The neurons of the DRN innervate a number of other regions and utilize many transmitters, of which serotonin is the most abundant and important. The DRN is involved in the control of various physiological functions and has been implicated in brain dysfunction, especially mood disorders such as depression. The human DRN has been estimated to contain approximately 235,000713,000 neurons (Baker et al., 1990). Approximately 165,000734,000 of these neurons are serotonergic (Baker et al., 1991).
Example image from Zambreanu et al., 2005 (Note: they don't show activation in DRN, but we clearly see the localization)
Raphe nuclei from Son et al., 2012
This figure from Son et al. 2012 clearly shows the 7 nuclei (anatomical image is from Naidich, and Son et al., 2012 combined PET and fMRI to identify clusters of glucose metabolism corresponding to those nuclei)
Naidich, T.P., Duvernoy, H.M., Delman, B.N., Sorensen, A.G., Kollias, S.S., Haacke, E.M., 2009. Duvernoy's atlas of the human brain stem and cerebellum: high-fieldMRI, surface anatomy, internal structure, vascularization and 3 D sectional anatomy. Springer, Vienna.
Neurosynth structure image:
Neurosynth connectivity image: (Note: DRN is really close to (and probably often mislabelled in imaging studies as) PAG — it also seems to share most of its connectivity)
dorsal raphe and fMRI dorsal raphe and PET dorsal raphe and connectivity dorsal raphe and optogenetics
The raphe nuclei are at the center of serotoninergic transmission in the brain. The more dorsal nuclei project to the brain (cortex, amygdala, caudate, putamen others?). The more ventral ones project to the spine (and involved in descending modulation of pain).
The DRN seems to receive nociceptive input, but it isn't generally distinguished from the PAG.
(HOW DO WE ADD LINKS TO OTHER PAGES? WOULD BE NICE TO LINK THE CONNECTIONS TO THE OTHER ASSOCIATED WIKI PAGES)
(Primarily from Michelsen et al., 2008)
Efferent projections of the DRN
Serotonergic neurons of the DRN display a topographic organization along the rostrocaudal axis, with respect to efferent projections (Abrams et al., 2004). Thus, neurons located more rostrally project to more rostral areas of the brain than neurons located more caudally in the DRN. Individual neurons seem to project to several distinct but functionally related targets through branched fibres (Lowry, 2002). The first branched projections to be discovered run from the dorsal DRN along the dorsal raphe cortical tract to the substantia nigra (SN) and caudate putamen (CP) (van der Kooy and Hattori, 1980a; Imai et al., 1986). Also, single neurons have been observed to target hippocampus and entorhinal cortex (Kohler and Steinbusch, 1982), prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens (NA) (Van Bockstaele et al., 1993), the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the thalamus and the lateral parabrachial nucleus (PBN) (Petrov et al., 1992), the central nucleus of the amygdala and the PVN (Petrov et al., 1994), distinct sites in the trigeminal somatosensory pathway (Kirifides et al., 2001) and the vestibular nuclei and amygdala (Halberstadt and Balaban, 2006).
This could be a key to understanding the role of the DRN as a modulator of complex autonomic functions with anatomical correlates in several parts of the brain. For instance, both the amygdala and the PVN, which are targeted by the same branched fibres, are involved in anxiety and conditioned fear (Petrov et al., 1992, 1994). These fibres emerge from well-defined subpopulations of neurons in the medial part of the middle DRN as well as more caudal clusters. However, only a part of the neurons with branched axons contain serotonin, the reported range being between 8% (Petrov et al., 1992) and 64% (Halberstadt and Balaban, 2006) depending on the targets. This serves as a reminder that serotonin is not the only transmitter utilized by the DRN. For instance, the CeA-PVN projecting subpopulations mentioned above (where about half the neurons are serotonergic) also contain corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), which has been associated with anxiety and other mood disorders. Anxiety-related behavioural changes induced by serotonergic activity, such as develop- ment of learned helplessness, seem to be CRF- dependent (Maier and Watkins, 2005). However, it has not been shown, whether the CRF-containing neurons themselves, or the serotonergic DRN neurons they target, send collaterals to amygdala and PVN.
Early studies showed that most DRN neurons project ipsilaterally and few contralaterally (Miller et al., 1975). Retrograde labelling studies of DRN efferents to the entorhinal cortex indicated that, when present, contralateral terminals are prefer- entially located close to the midline (Kohler and Steinbusch, 1982). Similar results were obtained recently in a study by Waselus and co-workers, in which all DRN neurons, which sent collaterals to lateral septum and striatum, were located ventromedially near the midline or slightly lateral to it. Notably, all such collateral neurons were serotonergic (Waselus et al., 2006). However, single neurons do not seem to project collaterally to both hemispheres (van der Kooy and Hattori, 1980b; Kohler and Steinbusch, 1982). Besides their topographic organization, different cell types also seem to display different projections. This has, however, not been extensively studied but is reflected in the distribution patterns of different cell types versus the projections emerging from different areas.
The DRN projects along several ascending and descending pathways, most of which it shares with one or more of the other raphe nuclei. The pathway nomenclature differs slightly between authors and the division is not completely con- sistent, with some overlaps and contradictions, especially in the older literature. In this review, we have labelled the pathways according to Steinbusch et al.
There are three ascending pathways: the dorsal, medial and ventral ascending pathways (Fig. 1). Of these, the dorsal and ventral ascending pathways are the two most important efferent projections of the DRN. They reach a multitude of targets throughout the forebrain, the most important one being the CP.
In addition, four descending projections leave the DRN: the bulbospinal pathway, cerebellar path- way, propriobulbar pathway and one that inner- vates the locus coeruleus, dorsal tegmental nucleus and pontine raphe nucleus. The main targets of the descending pathways are cerebellum, the lower brainstem and the spinal chord. These pathways will not be further dealt with in this chapter.
The dorsal ascending pathway
The dorsal ascending pathway rises from medial and rostral DRN. Eighty per cent of its fibres are serotonergic. It innervates the striatum and globus pallidus (GP).
Anterograde labelling has shown that DRN effer- ents target the ventromedial striatum at caudal to midlevel (Vertes, 1991). Most striatum-projecting neurons are located in rostral DRN (Steinbusch et al., 1981). Recent retrograde labelling studies confirmed a gradient of striatum-projecting neurons in the DRN. Approximately half of the neurons were located in the rostral third of the DRN. Three out of eight neurons were seen in middle DRN, parallell to the midline, with highest concentrations dorsomedially and ventrally. Only one out of eight neurons were located in caudal DRN, in its dorsomedial part (Waselus et al., 2006). The caudate putamen (CP) is extensively innervated by neurons of the DRN. It is the single most important of targets for DRN innervation and one of the first to be extensively studied. The earliest anatomical indica- tions for DRN projections to the CP (Anden et al., 1965) were subsequently supported by lesion studies, which showed a drop in striatal TPH activity (Geyer et al., 1976) as well as a decrease in [3H]5-HT uptake (Kellar et al., 1977) after DRN leisons, and by in vivo microdialysis, which showed that electrical stimulation of the DRN lead to a rise in serotonin dialysate in the CP (McQuade and Sharp, 1997). Meanwhile, more anatomical data has accumulated. Approximately one-third of all serotonergic DRN neurons project to the CP. This is, however, region-specific: in a cluster in dorsomedial DRN, 80–90% of seroto- nergic neurons were found to project to the CP (Steinbusch et al., 1981). In addition, 80% of DRN neurons that project to the CP are seroto- nergic, and they mainly project ipsilaterally. The remaining 20% of non-serotonergic CP-projecting neurons are mostly found in the caudal parts of ventromedian and dorsomedian DRN (see Fig. 2 for an overview of DRN anatomy).
The innervation of NA is even higher than that of the CP. A majority of the innervation is serotoner- gic. The shell of the NA is more heavily innervated than the core, especially in more caudal regions where the fibres in the shell are much more abundant than elsewhere in the NA. The core is innervated exclusively by thin (0.3 mm) smooth axons, similar to the rostral shell, which is innervated predominantly by thin axons and, to a lesser extent, by varicose fibres. In contrast, the caudal shell is innervated predominantly by thicker, highly varicose (0.5 mm between varicosities) sero- tonergic axons (Van Bockstaele and Pickel, 1993; Brown and Molliver, 2000). It has not been determined that all the innervation indeed stems from the DRN. However, studies on projections to cerebral cortex and olfactory bulb have shown that thin drug-sensitive serotonin axons typically arise from the DRN and varicose, drug-resistant axons arise from the MRN (Kosofsky and Molliver, 1987; Mamounas et al., 1991). In NA, the thin fibres of the core are more vulnerable to amphetamine derivatives than the thick fibres of the shell, indicating that the DRN innervates the NA core, as suggested by Brown and Molliver (2000).
Pallidal afferents from DRN have been demon- strated by tracing studies. Vertes (1991) used the retrograde tracer PHA-L in rats and DeVito et al. (1980) used the anterograde tracer HRP in macaque monkeys. The innervation of GP is mainly serotonergic, as confirmed by micro- dialysis studies in the rat, where stimulation of the DRN increased serotonin dialysate in the GP by 75%. In the same study, stimulation of the MRN had little or no effect (McQuade and Sharp, 1997).
Medial ascending pathway
The main target of the medial ascending pathway is SN. To a lesser extent, the pathway also innervates the CP. The fibres emerge from rostral parts of the DRN (van der Kooy and Hattori, 1980a; Imai et al., 1986).
Studies with the retrograde tracer HRP injected to the SN showed labelled neurons in the DRN but not in the MRN (Bunney and Aghajanian, 1976; Fibiger and Miller, 1977). The projections seem to arise from rostral DRN (Imai et al., 1986) and they target the pars compacta division in particular, whereas the pars reticulata seems to be innervated to a lesser, yet substantial degree, as indicated by studies using [3H]leucine (Fibiger and Miller, 1977) and [14C]leucine (Bobillier et al., 1976) injections into the DRN. However, a study using the retrograde tracer PHA-L failed to demonstrate DRN innervation of the pars reticulata (Vertes, 1991).
Although the dorsal ascending pathway conveys most of the raphe input to the CP, it also receives innervation via the medial ascending pathway. Some of the fibres branch and target both the SN and CP (van der Kooy and Hattori, 1980a; Imai et al., 1986). Thus, single DRN neurons can exert control over both the SN and the CP.
Ventral ascending pathway
Via the ventral ascending pathway, the DRN innervates many areas. The bilateral pathway ascends ventrolaterally and then turns rostrally to enter the medial forebrain bundle. The pathway also contains fibres from other raphe nuclei, especially the MRN. The main targets are thalamic and hypothalamic nuclei, habenula, septum, amygdala, cortex, the olfactory bulb, hippocam- pus, interpeduncular nucleus and geniculate body. ￼ Hypothalamus
Several studies have addressed the projections from the raphe nuclei to the hypothalamus. In an early autoradiographic study, in which [14C] tracing was used to map DRN efferents in cat, Bobillier et al. (1976) identified varying degrees of DRN innervation in several hypotha- lamic nuclei. Most of these results were later confirmed, while some have been contradicted by subsequent experiments. In addition, some studies have not distinguished between the raphe subnuclei. For instance Steinbusch and Nieuwenhuys (1982) demonstrated serotonergic innervation in nearly all parts of the hypothala- mus, but they did not attempt to locate the projecting perikarya. Some studies have indicated that the MRN is a greater source of hypothalamic serotonin innervation than the DRN (Geyer et al., 1976; Kellar et al., 1977).
The DRN has been reported to innervate the SCN and preoptic area (Bobillier et al., 1976), but later studies in the rat suggest that DRN does not project to these structures (van de Kar and Lorens, 1979; Meyer-Bernstein and Morin, 1996). The dense serotonergic innervation of the SCN and medial preoptic area (Bobillier et al., 1976), and the light-to-moderate serotonergic innervation of the rest of the anterior hypotha- lamus, seems to emerge from the MRN instead (van de Kar and Lorens, 1979; Hay-Schmidt et al., 2003).
Tracings studies have identified moderate DRN innervation in posterior hypothalamus (Bobillier et al., 1976) and lesion studies have shown that the arcuate nucleus receives innervation from DRN (van de Kar and Lorens, 1979). Further- more, the lateral hypothalamus receives high innervation from the DRN. This was shown by early [14C] tracing studies, such as by Bobillier et al. (1976) and later confirmed with PHA-L tracing (Vertes, 1991). A recent anterograde tracing study showed that neurons in the central portion of the rostral DR innervate about 23% of the orexinergic neurons of the lateral hypothala- mus, mainly in the lateral parts of the cluster (Yoshida et al., 2006).
Several of the thalamic nuclei receive innervation from the DRN. Studies in cat and rat have reported dense innervation in the midline and intralaminar nuclei of the thalamus (including the posterior paraventricular, the parafascicular, reuniens, rhomboid, intermediodorsal/mediodor- sal and central medial thalamic nuclei) and moderate innervation in thalamic paracentral and central lateral intralaminar nuclei (Conrad et al., 1974; Bobillier et al., 1976; Vertes, 1991). In addition, the subparafascicular and prethalamic nuclei (Bobillier et al., 1976) have been reported to receive innervation from the DRN, but confirma- tion by later studies is lacking.
The DRN innervates the lateral habenula to a moderate extent, whereas the medial habenula does not seem to receive any innervation in rat (Sim and Joseph, 1993), cat (Bobillier et al., 1976) and hamster (Morin and Meyer-Bernstein, 1999). One study, however, reported low innervation in the medial habenula of rat (Morin and Meyer- Bernstein, 1999). In the same study the hamster lateral habenula was shown to receive only sparse serotonergic innervation, indicating that the input from DRN is mainly non-serotonergic.
The DRN sends strong innervation to the lateral septum, 80% of which is serotonergic (Kohler et al., 1982). The innervation predominantly targets the medial portions of the lateral septum (Vertes, 1991). Most of the projecting neurons are located throughout the caudal DRN. In the rest of the DRN, neurons are sparse and located ventromedially. The neuron number decreases towards the mid-DRN and is very low in rostral DRN, while most of the rostral parts contain no septum-projecting neurons at all (Waselus et al., 2006). The medial septum is not generally considered a target of DRN innervation. Micro- dialysis studies have, however, shown that stimu- lation of DRN can increase serotonin dialysate in medial septum by more than 55%. This suggests that the DRN does indeed target the area, but as long as anatomical evidence is lacking it can not be excluded that such measurements actually sample serotonin from the lateral septum (McQuade and Sharp, 1997).
Studies using neuronal tracers, PHA-L in parti- cular, have demonstrated that the basolateral and lateral amygdaloid nuclei, as well as the extended amygdala (comprising centromedial amygdala + bed nucleus of stria terminalis and substantia innomi- nata, as defined by Alheid and Heimer, 1988) receive dense innervation from the DRN (Grove, 1988; Vertes, 1991). Also, immunohistochemical techniques in rat have shown that the basolateral amygdaloid nuclei receive strong serotonergic innervation, especially the rostral and medial parts of the basal nucleus, while the caudal part of the basal nucleus as well as the entire lateral nucleus receive a lower, yet high density of serotonin innervation. In the centromedial nuclei innervation is very low, except for the posterior part of the medial amygdaloid nucleus and the medial and lateral parts of the posterior nucleus (Steinbusch, 1981). The serotonin-immunoreactivity in the amygdaloid has not been directly correlated to DRN efferents. However, in squirrel monkeys, the most abundant serotonergic fibre type is thin, with fusiform or pleiomorphic varicosities, which suggests that serotonergic innervation emerges predomi- nantly from the DRN (Sadikot and Parent, 1990). A more recent immunohistochemical study in macaque monkeys is not consistent with the rat data, with regard to the relative fibre density in amygdaloid subnuclei, probably due to species diffe- rences. The highest levels were present in lateral subregions of the central amygdala and dorsolateral bed nucleus of stria terminalis. Levels were high in basal amygdala and moderate in centromedial amygdaloid nuclei (Freedman and Shi, 2001).
Several studies have dealt with cortical projections of the DRN (Bobillier et al., 1976; O’Hearn and Molliver, 1984; Vertes, 1991). O’Hearn and Molliver demonstrated that the cortical projections of rat DRN emerge predominantly from the ventral subnucleus, in particular from immediately dorsal or medial to the medial longitudinal fasciculi. These areas account for three-fourths of the DRN inner- vation of the cortex, whereas the dorsal subnucleus contributes one-fourth. Along the rostrocaudal axis, most neurons are located in the middle DRN, and the lateral areas of the DRN do not seem to project to the cerebral cortex at all. More than 80% of the projections are serotonergic (O’Hearn and Molliver, 1984). The ratio of contralateral fibres is 26–35%, and differs between the subnuclei. At least in entorhinal cortex, the contralateral fibres seem to preferentially target medial areas (Kohler and Steinbusch, 1982; O’Hearn and Molliver, 1984).
The frontal cortex receives most of its serotonergic innervation from the DRN (Kosofsky and Molliver, 1987). The density is highest in the dorsal frontal cortex and low in caudal regions, with intermediate densities in areas in between (Steinbusch, 1981). The frontal cortex receives projections from nearly twice as many DRN neurons as either the parietal or occipital cortex (O’Hearn and Molliver, 1984). The entorhinal cortex is targeted by both serotonergic and non-serotonergic projections (Segal, 1977) and (Koh- ler and Steinbusch, 1982) which for the most part emerge from the DRN (Kohler and Steinbusch, 1982). In addition, anterograde labellings with PHA- L have shown that many cortical regions receive dense (the piriform, insular and frontal cortices) or moderately dense (occipital, entorhinal, perirhinal, frontal orbital, anterior cingulate and infralimbic cortices) projections from the DRN (Vertes, 1991).
DRN projects to the hippocampus (Segal and Landis, 1974; Azmitia and Segal, 1978). DRN efferents to the hippocampus emerge predominantly from the most caudal parts of the nucleus, close to the midline, and is both serotonergic and non- serotonergic (Wyss et al., 1979; Kohler and Stein- busch, 1982). Immunohistochemical stainings have demonstrated fine serotonergic axons with small varicosities throughout the hippocampus (Fig. 3). The fibres’ morphology (Kosofsky and Molliver, 1987) suggests that they derive from the DRN (Mamounas et al., 1991). However, lesion studies have indicated that the MRN and not the DRN is the major source of hippocampal serotonin innerva- tion (van de Kar and Lorens, 1979).
Tracing studies with radioactively labelled amino acids in rat (Halaris et al., 1976) and cat (Bobillier et al., 1976) have demonstrated DRN projections to the olfactory bulb. The DRN is the primary source of serotonin in the olfactory bulb, as shown by retrograde transport of [3H]serotonin (Araneda et al., 1980a, b). Immunohistochemical stainings have demonstrated serotonergic innervation of all layers of the olfactory bulb, especially the glome- rular lamina (Steinbusch, 1981).
The supraependymal plexus is a network of serotonergic fibres, which covers nearly all ventri- cular surfaces with moderate or high density. They are most numerous in the third ventricle and the foramina of Monro, fewer in the lateral ventricles and aqueduct and numerous in the hypothalamic region of the third ventricle. Areas with low density or absence of fibres are the third ventricle floor, the preoptic area, the roof of interventricular foramen, the subfornical organ and the roof of the fourth ventricle (Richards et al., 1973; Chan-Palay, 1976; Lorez and Richards, 1982). The plexus was discovered already in the 1920s (Lorez and Richards, 1982) and later identified as being mainly serotonergic (Richards et al., 1973).
Several studies have indicated that the suprae-pendymal serotonergic fibres ascend from the medial and in particular, dorsal raphe: in rats, supraependymal fibres degenerated after lesions of the dorsal and medial raphe (Aghajanian and Gallager, 1975), and electrical stimulation of the medial and pontine raphe led to an increase in [3H]5-HT uptake from the intracerebroventricular space (Chan-Palay, 1976). Also [125I] tetanus toxin was injected into the lateral ventricles labelled neurons of the medial and dorsal raphe by means of retrograde transport along the fibres (Richards, 1978). Further, there is a direct fibre pathway between the DRN and the aqueduct surface in rats (Steinbusch et al., 1981), and in mice, an exit zone for fibres to the fourth ventricle has been reported immediately dorsal to the DRN (Derer, 1981). In cats, a [3H]-labelled proline injection in DRN and raphe centralis superior labelled supraependymal surfaces of all ventricles by means of anterograde transport (Pierce et al., 1976).
Studies on the rat lateral ventricles indicate that serotonergic fibres do not penetrate the ependyma, but instead enter the ventricles from their rostral poles. These fibres travel along fibres that travel through the median forebrain bundle and turn dorsocaudally between the CP and corpus callo- sum. Also, they do not form synaptic contact with ependymal cells. They are not found between ependyma and subependyma, but only in the lateral ventricles (Dinopoulos et al., 1995).
DRN neurons utilize several other neurotransmit- ters (Fig. 3). This chapter will list such transmit- ters, but not those, which are located in afferent fibres to the DRN and synthesized elsewhere.
Serotonin is the main neurotransmitter of the DRN and the first one to be demonstrated there (Dahlstrom and Fuxe, 1964). The serotonergic DRN neurons and their projections have been described in more detail in other parts of this chapter.
Dopamine was one of the first transmitters, to be demonstrated in DRN neurons, first with histo- fluorescence methods (Lindvall and Bjorklund, 1974; Ochi and shimizu, 1978) and later with antibodies against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine-b-hydroxylase (DbH) (Nagatsu et al., 1979). These dopaminergic neurons are located preferentially in ventromedial parts. They mainly target the NA and lateral septum, and to a lesser extent medial prefrontal cortex. In addition, very few fibres project to CP (Stratford and Wirtshafter, 1990).
GABAergic neurons were first demonstrated in the DRN by radioautographic tracing and GABA-uptake (Belin et al., 1979). The observa- tion was supported by immunohistochemistry with an antibody against the GABA-synthesizing enzyme g-aminobutyric acid decarboxylase, or GAD (Mugnaini and Oertel, 1985) and the GABA-degrading enzyme GABA-transaminase, or GABA-T (Nagai et al., 1983). The GABAergic synapse with serotonergic DRN neurons (Wang et al., 1992). They are markedly smaller than most serotonergic neurons and fire spikes characterized by short width and high frequency (Allers and Sharp, 2003).
Immunohistochemical stainings have shown that the DRN harbours neuropeptide Y (NPY) con- taining neurons, most of which are medium-sized, fusiform and bipolar (de Quidt and Emson, 1986). In situ-hybridization has demonstrated the pre- sence of NPY mRNA in the DRN (Pau et al., 1998).
Substance P has been shown to colocalize with serotonin in the DRN in at least rat (Chan-Palay et al., 1978; Hokfelt et al., 1978), cat (Lovick and Hunt, 1983; Arvidsson et al., 1994) and human (Baker et al., 1990, 1991). Substance P also colocalizes with serotonin in ascending projec- tions, but such fibres have not been shown to arise from the DRN (Otake, 2005). However, in another study no colocalization was seen in ascending fibres (Rupniak and Kramer, 1999). Low levels of prepro-galanin mRNA are present in DRN neurons (Cortes et al., 1990), yet galanin itself has been detected with immunohistochemistry only after colchicine treatment (Skofitsch and Jacobowitz, 1985). Galanin colocalizes with seroto- nin in the DRN. In fact, it has been reported that a large proportion of serotonergic DRN neurons also contain galanin (Melander et al., 1986). Galanin is also present in serotonergic fibres in one of the target areas of the DRN, the cortex (Skofitsch and Jacobowitz, 1985), but it has not been confirmed that these projections arise in the DRN.
Enkephalin (ENK)-containing neurons were first reported in the dorsal and lateral parts of rat DRN, just adjacent to the periventricular grey matter (Hokfelt et al., 1977; Uhl et al., 1979). Immunohistochemical studies showed that ENK is present throughout the cat DRN in neurons of variable morphology (Moss et al., 1980, 1981). However, serotonergic double-labelled neurons were predominantly small and round and located at the midline, dorsal to the medial longitudinal fasciculus (Glazer et al., 1981).
CRF immunoreactivity has been demonstrated in DRN neurons after colchicine treatment (Commons et al., 2003). CRF-immunoreactive neurons were mainly clustered in the dorsomedial subregion, especially in the middle DRN. Scattered neurons were seen in the lateral wings, while they were largely absent from the ventromedial DRN and the most caudal part of the DRN. Most (B96%) of CRF-immunoreactive neurons in the dorsomedial DRN were serotonergic, as defined by immuno- reactivity for TPH. Anterograde tracing (PHA-L) indicated that neurons in the middle portion of the dorsomedial DRN mainly target the CeA, the dorsal hypothalamic area and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (Commons et al., 2003).
In additional vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) has been demonstrated in neurons of both rat and mouse DRN (Sims et al., 1980) and cholecystokinin (CKK)-containing neurons in the rat DRN have been shown to innervate the PVN of the thalamus (Bhatnagar et al., 2000; Otake, 2005).
Phosphate-activated glutaminase (PAG) has been de- monstrated in TH-, DbH- or phenylethanolamine-N- methyltransferase (PNMT)-immunoreactive neurons, suggesting that glutamate is formed from glutamine in serotonergic and catecholaminergic neurons of the DRN (Kaneko et al., 1990).
The presence of nitric oxide (NO) in DRN was first demonstrated by immunohistochemistry against the NO synthesis reaction product citrul- line (Pasqualotto et al., 1991) and against argini- nosuccinate synthetase which turns citrulline into argininosuccinate (Nakamura et al., 1991). Subse- quently, the presence of NO in both serotonergic and non-serotonergic DRN neurons was demon- strated by colocalization of serotonin-immuno- reactivity with immunoreactivity for NO synthase (NOS) (Dun et al., 1994; Rodrigo et al., 1994) or with NADPH diaphorase activity (Johnson and Ma, 1993; Wotherspoon et al., 1994). The NO- synthesizing neurons are predominantly clustered in medioventral and mediodorsal parts of DRN (Wang et al., 1995). In the medial subnuclei, between 23 and 38% of serotonergic neurons appear to synthesize NO, whereas 60–77% of NO-synthesizing neurons are serotonergic. In the lateral subregions, NADPH diaphorase activity is present, but its activity does not overlap with serotonergic neurons (Wotherspoon et al., 1994).
Transient presence of additional transmitters
At least two additional neurotransmitters have been reported in the developing, but not adult, DRN. Histamine is present in neurons of rat and mouse DRN during embryonic development, but disappears before birth, as demonstrated by the presence of histamine-immunoreactivity and histi- dine decarboxylase (the histamine-synthesizing enzyme) mRNA (Auvinen and Panula, 1988; Nissinen and Panula, 1995; Nissinen et al., 1995; Karlstedt et al., 2001). Recent studies have shown that the gastrointestinal peptide secretin is also present in the DRN during mouse embryonic development (Lossi et al., 2004).
In vivo microdialysis showed that electrical stimulation of the DRN lead to a rise in serotonin dialysate in the caudate putamen. The innervation of globes pallidus is mainly serotonergic, as confirmed by microdialysis studies in the rat, where stimulation of the DRN increased serotonin dialysate in the GP by 75%. In the same study, stimulation of the MRN had little or no effect. The medial septum is not generally considered a target of DRN innervation. Micro- dialysis studies have, however, shown that stimulation of DRN can increase serotonin dialysate in medial septum by more than 55%. This suggests that the DRN does indeed target the area, but as long as anatomical evidence is lacking it can not be excluded that such measurements actually sample serotonin from the lateral septum McQuade, R. and Sharp, T. (1997) Functional mapping of dorsal and median raphe 5-hydroxytryptamine pathways in forebrain of the rat using microdialysis. J. Neurochem., 69: 791–796.
Electrical stimulation of the medial and pontine raphe led to an increase in [3H]5-HT uptake from the intracerebroventricular space. Chan-Palay, V. (1976) Serotonin axons in the supra- and subependymal plexuses and in the leptomeninges; their roles in local alterations of cerebrospinal fluid and vasomotor activity. Brain Res., 102: 103–130.
Acute 8-OH-DPAT administration, under conditions known to suppress raphe neuronal firing, also reduced VCMs. Immediate early gene mapping using zif268 in situ hybridization revealed that STN-DBS inhibited activity of DRN and MRN neurons. Creed MC, Hamani C, Bridgman A, Fletcher PJ, Nobrega JN. Contribution of decreased serotonin release to the antidyskinetic effects of deep brain stimulation in a rodent model of tardive dyskinesia: comparison of the subthalamic and entopeduncular nuclei. J Neurosci. 2012 Jul 11;32(28):9574-81.
Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is an adjunctive treatment for resistant epilepsy and depression. Electrophysiological recordings in the rat brain have already shown that chronic VNS increases norepinephrine (NE) neuronal firing activity and, subsequently, that of serotonin (5-HT) neurons through an activation of their excitatory α1-adrenoceptors. Chronic VNS significantly increased extracellular 5-HT levels in the dorsal raphe but not in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. In conclusion, the effect of VNS in increasing the transmission of monoaminergic systems targeted in the treatment of resistant depression should be involved, at least in part, in its antidepressant properties observed in patients not responding to many antidepressant strategies. Manta S, El Mansari M, Debonnel G, Blier P..“Electrophysiological and neurochemical effects of long-term vagus nerve stimulation on the rat monoaminergic systems.” Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2012 Apr 17:1-12. [Epub ahead of print]
Previous studies have suggested that serotonergic neurons in the midbrain raphe complex have a functional topographic organization. Recent studies suggest that stimulation of a bed nucleus of the stria terminalis-dorsal raphe nucleus pathway by stress- and anxiety-related stimuli modulates a subpopulation of serotonergic neurons in the dorsal part of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRD) and caudal part of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRC) that participates in facilitation of anxiety-like responses. In contrast, recent studies suggest that activation of a spinoparabrachial pathway by peripheral thermal or immune stimuli excites subpopulations of serotonergic neurons in the ventrolateral part of the dorsal raphe nucleus/ventrolateral periaqueducal gray (DRVL/VLPAG) region and interfascicular part of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRI). Studies support a role for serotonergic neurons in the DRVL/VLPAG in inhibition of panic-like responses, and serotonergic neurons in the DRI in antidepressant-like effects. Thus, data suggest that while some subpopulations of serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus play a role in facilitation of anxiety-like responses, others play a role in inhibition of anxiety- or panic-like responses, while others play a role in antidepressant-like effects. Understanding the anatomical and functional properties of these distinct serotonergic systems may lead to novel therapeutic strategies for the prevention and/or treatment of affective and anxiety disorders. In this review, we describe the anatomical and functional properties of subpopulations of serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus, with a focus on those implicated in symptoms of anxiety and affective disorders, the DRD/DRC, DRVL/VLPAG, and DRI. Hale MW, Shekhar A, Lowry CA. Stress-related Serotonergic Systems: Implications for Symptomatology of Anxiety and Affective Disorders.Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2012 Jul;32(5):695-708. Epub 2012 Apr 7.
Tonic immobility (TI) is an innate defensive behavior that can be elicited by physical restriction and postural inversion and is characterized by a profound and temporary state of akinesis. Our previous studies demonstrated that the stimulation of serotonin receptors in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) appears to be biphasic during TI responses in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). Serotonin released by the DRN modulates behavioral responses and its release can occur through the action of different neurotransmitter systems, including the opioidergic and GABAergic systems. This study examines the role of opioidergic, GABAergic and serotonergic signaling in the DRN in TI defensive behavioral responses in guinea pigs. Microinjection of morphine (1.1 nmol) or bicuculline (0.5 nmol) into the DRN increased the duration of TI. The effect of morphine (1.1 nmol) was antagonized by pretreatment with naloxone (0.7 nmol), suggesting that the activation of μ opioid receptors in the DRN facilitates the TI response. By contrast, microinjection of muscimol (0.5 nmol) into the DRN decreased the duration of TI. However, a dose of muscimol (0.26 nmol) that alone did not affect TI, was sufficient to inhibit the effect of morphine (1.1 nmol) on TI, indicating that GABAergic and enkephalinergic neurons interact in the DRN. Microinjection of alpha-methyl-5-HT (1.6 nmol), a 5-HT(2) agonist, into the DRN also increased TI. This effect was inhibited by the prior administration of naloxone (0.7 nmol). Microinjection of 8-OH-DPAT (1.3 nmol) also blocked the increase of TI promoted by morphine (1.1 nmol). Our results indicate that the opioidergic, GABAergic and serotonergic systems in the DRN are important for modulation of defensive behavioral responses of TI. Therefore, we suggest that opioid inhibition of GABAergic neurons results in disinhibition of serotonergic neurons and this is the mechanism by which opioids could enhance TI. Conversely, a decrease in TI could occur through the activation of GABAergic interneurons. Ferreira MD, Menescal-de-Oliveira L. Opioidergic, GABAergic and serotonergic neurotransmission in the dorsal raphe nucleus modulates tonic immobility in guinea pigs.Physiol Behav. 2012 May 15;106(2):109-16. Epub 2012 Jan 12.
Understanding serotonergic (5-HT) signaling is critical for understanding human physiology, behavior, and neuropsychiatric disease. 5-HT mediates its actions via ionotropic and metabotropic 5-HT receptors. The 5-HT(1A) receptor is a metabotropic G protein-coupled receptor linked to the G(i/o) signaling pathway and has been specifically implicated in the pathogenesis of depression and anxiety. To understand and precisely control 5-HT(1A) signaling, we created a light-activated G protein-coupled receptor that targets into 5-HT(1A) receptor domains and substitutes for endogenous 5-HT(1A) receptors. To induce 5-HT(1A)-like targeting, vertebrate rhodopsin was tagged with the C-terminal domain (CT) of 5-HT(1A) (Rh-CT(5-HT1A)). Rh-CT(5-HT1A) activates G protein-coupled inward rectifying K(+) channels in response to light and causes membrane hyperpolarization in hippocampal neurons, similar to the agonist-induced responses of the 5-HT(1A) receptor. The intracellular distribution of Rh-CT(5-HT1A) resembles that of the 5-HT(1A) receptor; Rh-CT(5-HT1A) localizes to somatodendritic sites and is efficiently trafficked to distal dendritic processes. Additionally, neuronal expression of Rh-CT(5-HT1A), but not Rh, decreases 5-HT(1A) agonist sensitivity, suggesting that Rh-CT(5-HT1A) and 5-HT(1A) receptors compete to interact with the same trafficking machinery. Finally, Rh-CT(5-HT1A) is able to rescue 5-HT(1A) signaling of 5-HT(1A) KO mice in cultured neurons and in slices of the dorsal raphe showing that Rh-CT(5-HT1A) is able to functionally compensate for native 5-HT(1A). Thus, as an optogenetic tool, Rh-CT(5-HT1A) has the potential to directly correlate in vivo 5-HT(1A) signaling with 5-HT neuron activity and behavior in both normal animals and animal models of neuropsychiatric disease. Oh, E., Maejima, T., Liu, C., Deneris, E.S., and Herlitze, S. (2010). Substitution of 5-HT1A receptor signaling by a light-activated G protein-coupled receptor. J. Biol. Chem. 285, 30825–30836.
Orexin/hypocretin neurons have a crucial role in the regulation of sleep and wakefulness. To help determine how these neurons promote wakefulness, we generated transgenic mice in which orexin neurons expressed halorhodopsin (orexin/Halo mice), an orange light-activated neuronal silencer. Slice patch-clamp recordings of orexin neurons that expressed halorhodopsin demonstrated that orange light photic illumination immediately hyperpolarized membrane potential and inhibited orexin neuron discharge in proportion to illumination intensity. Acute silencing of orexin neurons in vivo during the day (the inactive period) induced synchronization of the electroencephalogram and a reduction in amplitude of the electromyogram that is characteristic of slow-wave sleep (SWS). In contrast, orexin neuron photoinhibition was ineffective during the night (active period). Acute photoinhibition of orexin neurons during the day in orexin/Halo mice also reduced discharge of neurons in an orexin terminal field, the dorsal raphe (DR) nucleus. However, serotonergic DR neurons exhibited normal discharge rates in mice lacking orexin neurons. Thus, although usually highly dependent on orexin neuronal activity, serotonergic DR neuronal activity can be regulated appropriately in the chronic absence of orexin input. Together, these results demonstrate that acute inhibition of orexin neurons results in time-of-day-dependent induction of SWS and in reduced firing rate of neurons in an efferent projection site thought to be involved in arousal state regulation. The results presented here advance our understanding of the role of orexin neurons in the regulation of sleep/wakefulness and may be relevant to the mechanisms that underlie symptom progression in narcolepsy. Tsunematsu, T. et al. (2011) Acute optogenetic silencing of orexin/ hypocretin neurons induces slow-wave sleep in mice. J. Neurosci. 31, 10529–10539
Coordinates (x, y, z): [0, 0, 0] , [0, 0, 0] Say how overall coordinates were derived here (single study? average? structural landmark?)
Specific study coordinates (if not too many)
|Napadow 2005||Contrast Descrip||0||-21||-4|
|Pedroni 2011||Contrast Descrip||-2||-32||-16|
|Kalin 2005||Contrast Descrip||-1||-14||-4|
Michelson et al., 2008. The dorsal raphe nucleus and serotonin: implications for neuroplasticity linked to major depression and Alzheimer’s disease. michelsen_2008.pdf
Napadow et al., 2005 Correlating Acupuncture fMRI in the Human Brainstem with Heart Rate Variability. 27th Annual International IEEE EMBS Conference; Shanghai, China.
Pedroni et al., 2011: DRN activity correlates (PPI) with decreases in nACC when rewards are omitted (negative PE). Nice discussion on how this might relate to RCZ showing the same pattern (DRN serotonin decreases striatal dopamine which releases inhibition on RCZ), in relation with error-related negativity in ERP studies. lOFC (which could be considered as ant insula) also show the same pattern as the DRN.
Kalin et al., 2005: DRN activity correlates with contextual (adaptive) freezing in monkeys
Tanaka et al., 2004: DRN associated with a condition in which large delayed rewards are associated with small immediate losses. Their interpretation is mainly oriented towards the idea that DRN is encoding the delayed reward (and inhibition of immediate response), but it could be that DRN activity is explained by the frequent losses
Neurosynth results for coordinate(s)
Studies reporting activation within 10 mm of (0, -20, -4):
'Do I like this person?' A network analysis of midline cortex during a social preference task Chen AC; Welsh RC; Liberzon I; Taylor SF NeuroImage 2010 20188190
A cerebellar thalamic cortical circuit for error-related cognitive control Ide JS; Li CS NeuroImage 2011 20656038
A comparison of brain activation patterns during covert and overt paced auditory serial addition test tasks Forn C; Ventura-Campos N; Belenguer A; Belloch V; Parcet MA; Avila C Human Brain Mapping 2008 17598164
A cross-modal system linking primary auditory and visual cortices: Evidence from intrinsic fMRI connectivity analysis Eckert MA; Kamdar NV; Chang CE; Beckmann CF; Greicius MD; Menon V Human Brain Mapping 2008 18412133
A functional dissociation of conflict processing within anterior cingulate cortex Kim C; Kroger JK; Kim J Human Brain Mapping 2010 21229616
A functional magnetic resonance imaging study of working memory abnormalities in schizophrenia Johnson MR; Morris NA; Astur RS; Calhoun VD; Mathalon DH; Kiehl KA; Pearlson GD Biological Psychiatry 2006 16503328
A regulation role of the prefrontal cortex in the fist-edge-palm task: evidence from functional connectivity analysis Rao H; Di X; Chan RC; Ding Y; Ye B; Gao D NeuroImage 2008 18495496
A supramodal limbic-paralimbic-neocortical network supports goal-directed stimulus processing Laurens KR; Kiehl KA; Liddle PF Human Brain Mapping 2005 15593271
Abnormal activity patterns in premotor cortex during sequence learning in autistic patients Muller RA; Cauich C; Rubio MA; Mizuno A; Courchesne E Biological Psychiatry 2004 15336514
Abnormal object recall and anterior cingulate overactivation correlate with formal thought disorder in schizophrenia Assaf M; Rivkin PR; Kuzu CH; Calhoun VD; Kraut MA; Groth KM; Yassa MA; Hart J Jr; Pearlson GD Biological Psychiatry 2006 16199012
Abnormal temporal difference reward-learning signals in major depression Kumar P; Waiter G; Ahearn T; Milders M; Reid I; Steele JD Brain 2008 18579575
Absolute coding of stimulus novelty in the human substantia nigra/VTA Bunzeck N; Duzel E Neuron 2006 16880131
Action selection: a race model for selected and non-selected actions distinguishes the contribution of premotor and prefrontal areas Rowe JB; Hughes L; Nimmo-Smith I NeuroImage 2010 20188184
Activation in striatum and medial temporal lobe during sequence learning in younger and older adults: relations to performance Rieckmann A; Fischer H; Backman L NeuroImage 2010 20079855
Acupuncture modulates spontaneous activities in the anticorrelated resting brain networks Bai L; Qin W; Tian J; Dong M; Pan X; Chen P; Dai J; Yang W; Liu Y Brain Research 2009 19427842
Adult age differences in functional connectivity during executive control Madden DJ; Costello MC; Dennis NA; Davis SW; Shepler AM; Spaniol J; Bucur B; Cabeza R NeuroImage 2010 20434565
Age-dependent changes in the neural correlates of force modulation: an fMRI study Ward NS; Swayne OB; Newton JM Neurobiology of Aging 2008 17566608
Age-related differences in brain activity during verbal recency memory Rajah MN; McIntosh AR Brain Research 2008 18282558
Age-related functional changes in gustatory and reward processing regions: An fMRI study Jacobson A; Green E; Murphy C NeuroImage 2010 20472070
Age-related functional recruitment for famous name recognition: an event-related fMRI study Nielson KA; Douville KL; Seidenberg M; Woodard JL; Miller SK; Franczak M; Antuono P; Rao SM Neurobiology of Aging 2006 16225965
Aging and the interaction of sensory cortical function and structure Peiffer AM; Hugenschmidt CE; Maldjian JA; Casanova R; Srikanth R; Hayasaka S; Burdette JH; Kraft RA; Laurienti PJ Human Brain Mapping 2009 18072271
Altered brain activity during pain processing in fibromyalgia Burgmer M; Pogatzki-Zahn E; Gaubitz M; Wessoleck E; Heuft G; Pfleiderer B NeuroImage 2009 18848998
Amygdala activation and facial expressions: explicit emotion discrimination versus implicit emotion processing Habel U; Windischberger C; Derntl B; Robinson S; Kryspin-Exner I; Gur RC; Moser E Neuropsychologia 2007 17408704
Amygdala and nucleus accumbens in responses to receipt and omission of gains in adults and adolescents Ernst M; Nelson EE; Jazbec S; McClure EB; Monk CS; Leibenluft E; Blair J; Pine DS NeuroImage 2005 15850746
Amygdala and orbitofrontal reactivity to social threat in individuals with impulsive aggression Coccaro EF; McCloskey MS; Fitzgerald DA; Phan KL Biological Psychiatry 2007 17210136
An event-related fMRI study of the neural networks underlying the encoding, maintenance, and retrieval phase in a delayed-match-to-sample task Habeck C; Rakitin BC; Moeller J; Scarmeas N; Zarahn E; Brown T; Stern Y Cognitive Brain Research 2005 15820629
An evoked auditory response fMRI study of the effects of rTMS on putative AVH pathways in healthy volunteers Tracy DK; O'Daly O; Joyce DW; Michalopoulou PG; Basit BB; Dhillon G; McLoughlin DM; Shergill SS Neuropsychologia 2010 19769994
An fMRI case report of photophobia: activation of the trigeminal nociceptive pathway Moulton EA; Becerra L; Borsook D Pain 2009 19674842
An fMRI investigation of syllable sequence production Bohland JW; Guenther FH NeuroImage 2006 16730195
An fMRI study of theory of mind in schizophrenic patients with “passivity” symptoms Brune M; Lissek S; Fuchs N; Witthaus H; Peters S; Nicolas V; Juckel G; Tegenthoff M Neuropsychologia 2008 18329671
Anterior cingulate cortex: An fMRI analysis of conflict specificity and functional differentiation Milham MP; Banich MT Human Brain Mapping 2005 15834861
Anticipating instrumentally obtained and passively-received rewards: a factorial fMRI investigation Bjork JM; Hommer DW Behavioural Brain Research 2007 17140674
Anticipation of novelty recruits reward system and hippocampus while promoting recollection Wittmann BC; Bunzeck N; Dolan RJ; Duzel E NeuroImage 2007 17764976
Are errors differentiable from deceptive responses when feigning memory impairment? An fMRI study Lee TM; Au RK; Liu HL; Ting KH; Huang CM; Chan CC Brain and Cognition 2009 18938008
Art for reward's sake: visual art recruits the ventral striatum Lacey S; Hagtvedt H; Patrick VM; Anderson A; Stilla R; Deshpande G; Hu X; Sato JR; Reddy S; Sathian K NeuroImage 2011 21111833
Auditory task presentation reveals predominantly right hemispheric fMRI activation patterns during mental calculation Fehr T; Code C; Herrmann M Neuroscience Letters 2008 18093736
Automatic brain response to facial emotion as a function of implicitly and explicitly measured extraversion Suslow T; Kugel H; Reber H; Bauer J; Dannlowski U; Kersting A; Arolt V; Heindel W; Ohrmann P; Egloff B Neuroscience 2010 20144695
Basal Ganglia Functional Connectivity Based on a Meta-Analysis of 126 Positron Emission Tomography and Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Publications Postuma RB; Dagher A Cerebral Cortex 2006 16373457
Beyond common resources: the cortical basis for resolving task interference Hester R; Murphy K; Garavan H NeuroImage 2004 15325367
BOLD correlates of trial-by-trial reaction time variability in gray and white matter: a multi-study fMRI analysis Yarkoni T; Barch DM; Gray JR; Conturo TE; Braver TS PLoS ONE 2009 19165335
Brain activation and hypothalamic functional connectivity during human non-rapid eye movement sleep: an EEG/fMRI study Kaufmann C; Wehrle R; Wetter TC; Holsboer F; Auer DP; Pollmacher T; Czisch M Brain 2006 16339798
Brain Activation during Anticipation of Sound Sequences Leaver AM; Van Lare J; Zielinski B; Halpern AR; Rauschecker JP Journal of Neuroscience 2009 19244522
Brain activation during execution and motor imagery of novel and skilled sequential hand movements Lacourse MG; Orr EL; Cramer SC; Cohen MJ NeuroImage 2005 16046149
Brain Activation during Input from Mechanoinsensitive versus Polymodal C-Nociceptors Ruehle BS; Handwerker HO; Lennerz JK; Ringler R; Forster C Journal of Neuroscience 2006 16707801
Brain activity associated with the electrodermal reactivity to acute heat pain Dube AA; Duquette M; Roy M; Lepore F; Duncan G; Rainville P NeuroImage 2009 19027077
Brain dynamics for perception of tactile allodynia (touch-induced pain) in postherpetic neuralgia Geha PY; Baliki MN; Wang X; Harden RN; Paice JA; Apkarian AV Pain 2008 18384958
Brain imaging of mechanically induced muscle versus cutaneous pain Uematsu H; Shibata M; Miyauchi S; Mashimo T Neuroscience Research 2011 21291923
Brain network dynamics during error commission Stevens MC; Kiehl KA; Pearlson GD; Calhoun VD Human Brain Mapping 2009 17979124
Brain networks for integrative rhythm formation Thaut MH; Demartin M; Sanes JN PLoS ONE 2008 18509462
Brain regions associated with the expression and contextual regulation of anxiety in primates Kalin NH; Shelton SE; Fox AS; Oakes TR; Davidson RJ Biological Psychiatry 2005 16043132
Brain Systems Mediating Cognitive Interference by Emotional Distraction Dolcos F; McCarthy G Journal of Neuroscience 2006 16481440
Cerebral activation during hypnotically induced and imagined pain Derbyshire SW; Whalley MG; Stenger VA; Oakley DA NeuroImage 2004 15325387
Cerebral blood flow changes induced by pedunculopontine nucleus stimulation in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease: A [15O] H2O PET study Ballanger B; Lozano AM; Moro E; van Eimeren T; Hamani C; Chen R; Cilia R; Houle S; Poon YY; Lang AE; Strafella AP Human Brain Mapping 2009 19479730
Cerebral regions processing first- and higher-order motion in an opposed-direction discrimination task European Journal of Neuroscience 2003
Changes in brain function and morphology in patients with recurring herpes simplex virus infections and chronic pain Vartiainen N; Kallio-Laine K; Hlushchuk Y; Kirveskari E; Seppanen M; Autti H; Jousmaki V; Forss N; Kalso E; Hari R Pain 2009 19446957
Changing channels: an fMRI study of aging and cross-modal attention shifts Townsend J; Adamo M; Haist F NeuroImage 2006 16549368
Clustered functional MRI of overt speech production Soros P; Sokoloff LG; Bose A; McIntosh AR; Graham SJ; Stuss DT NeuroImage 2006 16631384
Cocaine dependence and attention switching within and between verbal and visuospatial working memory Kubler A; Murphy K; Garavan H European Journal of Neuroscience 2005 15869491
Combined event-related fMRI and intracerebral ERP study of an auditory oddball task Brazdil M; Dobsik M; Mikl M; Hlustik P; Daniel P; Pazourkova M; Krupa P; Rektor I NeuroImage 2005 15862229
Common and distinct neural substrates for the perception of speech rhythm and intonation Zhang L; Shu H; Zhou F; Wang X; Li P Human Brain Mapping 2010 20063360
Common and unique components of inhibition and working memory: an fMRI, within-subjects investigation McNab F; Leroux G; Strand F; Thorell L; Bergman S; Klingberg T Neuropsychologia 2008 18573510
Common and unique components of response inhibition revealed by fMRI Wager TD; Sylvester CY; Lacey SC; Nee DE; Franklin M; Jonides J NeuroImage 2005 16019232
Common neural substrates for visual working memory and attention Mayer JS; Bittner RA; Nikolic D; Bledowski C; Goebel R; Linden DE NeuroImage 2007 17462914
Compassionate attitude towards others' suffering activates the mesolimbic neural system Kim JW; Kim SE; Kim JJ; Jeong B; Park CH; Son AR; Song JE; Ki SW Neuropsychologia 2009 19428038
Compensatory cortical activation observed by fMRI during a cognitive task at the earliest stage of multiple sclerosis Audoin B; Ibarrola D; Ranjeva JP; Confort-Gouny S; Malikova I; Ali-Cherif A; Pelletier J; Cozzone P Human Brain Mapping 2003 14505331
Compensatory mechanisms underlie intact task-switching performance in schizophrenia Jamadar S; Michie P; Karayanidis F Neuropsychologia 2010 20036266 COMT Val(108/158)Met polymorphism effects on emotional brain function and negativity bias Williams LM; Gatt JM; Grieve SM; Dobson-Stone C; Paul RH; Gordon E; Schofield PR NeuroImage 2010 20139013
Connectivity of the primate superior colliculus mapped by concurrent microstimulation and event-related FMRI Field CB; Johnston K; Gati JS; Menon RS; Everling S PLoS ONE 2008 19079541
Constrained principal component analysis reveals functionally connected load-dependent networks involved in multiple stages of working memory Metzak P; Feredoes E; Takane Y; Wang L; Weinstein S; Cairo T; Ngan ET; Woodward TS Human Brain Mapping 2010 20572208
Constructive episodic simulation of the future and the past: distinct subsystems of a core brain network mediate imagining and remembering Addis DR; Pan L; Vu MA; Laiser N; Schacter DL Neuropsychologia 2009 19041331
Cortical activation in response to pure taste stimuli during the physiological states of hunger and satiety Haase L; Cerf-Ducastel B; Murphy C NeuroImage 2009 19007893
Cortical activity in Parkinson's disease during executive processing depends on striatal involvement Monchi O; Petrides M; Mejia-Constain B; Strafella AP Brain 2007 17121746
Cortical and subcortical contributions to saccade latency in the human brain Neggers SF; Raemaekers MA; Lampmann EE; Postma A; Ramsey NF European Journal of Neuroscience 2005 15926933
Cortical dysfunction in patients with Huntington's disease during working memory performance Wolf RC; Vasic N; Schonfeldt-Lecuona C; Ecker D; Landwehrmeyer GB Human Brain Mapping 2009 18172852
Cortical effects of anticipation and endogenous modulation of visceral pain assessed by functional brain MRI in irritable bowel syndrome patients and healthy controls Song GH; Venkatraman V; Ho KY; Chee MW; Yeoh KG; Wilder-Smith CH Pain 2006 16846694
Cortical metabolic changes in the cerebellar variant of multiple system atrophy: a voxel-based FDG-PET study in 41 patients Lee PH; An YS; Yong SW; Yoon SN NeuroImage 2008 18203624
Cortical processing of visceral and somatic stimulation: differentiating pain intensity from unpleasantness Dunckley P; Wise RG; Aziz Q; Painter D; Brooks J; Tracey I; Chang L Neuroscience 2005 15896917
Creating a population-averaged standard brain template for Japanese macaques (M. fuscata) Quallo MM; Price CJ; Ueno K; Asamizuya T; Cheng K; Lemon RN; Iriki A NeuroImage 2010 20452439
Detection of unexpected events during spatial navigation in humans: bottom-up attentional system and neural mechanisms Iaria G; Fox CJ; Chen JK; Petrides M; Barton JJ European Journal of Neuroscience 2008 18279364 Developmental Changes in Human Cerebral Functional Organization for Word Generation Brown TT; Lugar HM; Coalson RS; Miezin FM; Petersen SE; Schlaggar BL Cerebral Cortex 2005 15297366
Differential cerebral activation during observation of expressive gestures and motor acts Lotze M; Heymans U; Birbaumer N; Veit R; Erb M; Flor H; Halsband U Neuropsychologia 2006 16730755
Differential cingulate and caudate activation following unexpected nonrewarding stimuli Davidson MC; Horvitz JC; Tottenham N; Fossella JA; Watts R; Ulug AM; Casey BJ NeuroImage 2004 15528104
Diminished neural sensitivity to irregular facial expression in first-episode schizophrenia Bleich-Cohen M; Strous RD; Even R; Rotshtein P; Yovel G; Iancu I; Olmer A; Hendler T Human Brain Mapping 2009 19172653
Discriminating imagined from perceived information engages brain areas implicated in schizophrenia Simons JS; Davis SW; Gilbert SJ; Frith CD; Burgess PW NeuroImage 2006 16797186
Dissection of perceptual, motor and autonomic components of brain activity evoked by noxious stimulation Piche M; Arsenault M; Rainville P Pain 2010 20417032
Dissociable processes of cognitive control during error and non-error conflicts: a study of the stop signal task Hendrick OM; Ide JS; Luo X; Li CS PLoS ONE 2010 20949134
Dissociable Roles for the Hippocampus and the Amygdala in Human Cued versus Context Fear Conditioning Marschner A; Kalisch R; Vervliet B; Vansteenwegen D; Buchel C Journal of Neuroscience 2008 18768697
Dissociable roles of medial orbitofrontal cortex in human operant extinction learning Finger EC; Mitchell DG; Jones M; Blair RJ NeuroImage 2008 18793731
Dissociating the contributions of independent corticostriatal systems to visual categorization learning through the use of reinforcement learning modeling and Granger causality modeling Seger CA; Peterson EJ; Cincotta CM; Lopez-Paniagua D; Anderson CW NeuroImage 2010 19969091
Distinct brain networks for time-varied characteristics of acupuncture Liu J; Qin W; Guo Q; Sun J; Yuan K; Liu P; Zhang Y; von Deneen KM; Liu Y; Tian J Neuroscience Letters 2010 19914337
Distinct striatal regions for planning and executing novel and automated movement sequences Jankowski J; Scheef L; Huppe C; Boecker H NeuroImage 2009 19059350
Distinction between the literal and intended meanings of sentences: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study of metaphor and sarcasm Uchiyama HT; Saito DN; Tanabe HC; Harada T; Seki A; Ohno K; Koeda T; Sadato N Cortex 2011 21333979
Dominance for Vestibular Cortical Function in the Non-dominant Hemisphere Cerebral Cortex 2003 12902399 Dopamine transporter gene variation modulates activation of striatum in youth with ADHD Bedard AC; Schulz KP; Cook EH Jr; Fan J; Clerkin SM; Ivanov I; Halperin JM; Newcorn JH NeuroImage 2010 20026227
Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activity predicts responsiveness to cognitive-behavioral therapy in schizophrenia Kumari V; Peters ER; Fannon D; Antonova E; Premkumar P; Anilkumar AP; Williams SC; Kuipers E Biological Psychiatry 2009 19560121
Dynamic EEG-informed fMRI modeling of the pain matrix using 20-ms root mean square segments Brinkmeyer J; Mobascher A; Warbrick T; Musso F; Wittsack HJ; Saleh A; Schnitzler A; Winterer G Human Brain Mapping 2010 20162596
Dynamics of Prefrontal and Cingulate Activity during a Reward-Based Logical Deduction Task Landmann C; Dehaene S; Pappata S; Jobert A; Bottlaender M; Roumenov D; Le Bihan D Cerebral Cortex 2007 16707739
Dysfunction of reward processing correlates with alcohol craving in detoxified alcoholics Wrase J; Schlagenhauf F; Kienast T; Wustenberg T; Bermpohl F; Kahnt T; Beck A; Strohle A; Juckel G; Knutson B; Heinz A NeuroImage 2007 17291784
Dysfunction of ventral striatal reward prediction in schizophrenia Juckel G; Schlagenhauf F; Koslowski M; Wustenberg T; Villringer A; Knutson B; Wrase J; Heinz A NeuroImage 2006 16139525
Effect of menstrual cycle phase on corticolimbic brain activation by visual food cues Frank TC; Kim GL; Krzemien A; Van Vugt DA Brain Research 2010 20920491
Effects of aging on functional connectivity of the amygdala during negative evaluation: a network analysis of fMRI data St Jacques P; Dolcos F; Cabeza R Neurobiology of Aging 2010 18455837
Effects of aging on mindreading ability through the eyes: an fMRI study Castelli I; Baglio F; Blasi V; Alberoni M; Falini A; Liverta-Sempio O; Nemni R; Marchetti A Neuropsychologia 2010 20457166
Effects of Attention and Emotion on Repetition Priming and Their Modulation by Cholinergic Enhancement Bentley P; Vuilleumier P; Thiel CM; Driver J; Dolan RJ Journal of Neurophysiology 2003 12649315
Effort-Based Cost-Benefit Valuation and the Human Brain Croxson PL; Walton ME; O'Reilly JX; Behrens TE; Rushworth MF Journal of Neuroscience 2009 19357278
Emotional and autonomic consequences of spinal cord injury explored using functional brain imaging Nicotra A; Critchley HD; Mathias CJ; Dolan RJ Brain 2006 16330503
Emotional priming effects during Stroop task performance Hart SJ; Green SR; Casp M; Belger A NeuroImage 2010 19883772
Enhanced visual processing contributes to matrix reasoning in autism Soulieres I; Dawson M; Samson F; Barbeau EB; Sahyoun CP; Strangman GE; Zeffiro TA; Mottron L Human Brain Mapping 2009 19530215
Erotic and disgust-inducing pictures–differences in the hemodynamic responses of the brain Stark R; Schienle A; Girod C; Walter B; Kirsch P; Blecker C; Ott U; Schafer A; Sammer G; Zimmermann M; Vaitl D Biological Psychology 2005 16038771
Event-related fMRI studies of episodic encoding and retrieval: meta-analyses using activation likelihood estimation Spaniol J; Davidson PS; Kim AS; Han H; Moscovitch M; Grady CL Neuropsychologia 2009 19428409
Event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging of response inhibition in obsessive-compulsive disorder Roth RM; Saykin AJ; Flashman LA; Pixley HS; West JD; Mamourian AC Biological Psychiatry 2007 17511967
Evidence for a different role of the ventral and dorsal medial prefrontal cortex for social reactive aggression: An interactive fMRI study Lotze M; Veit R; Anders S; Birbaumer N NeuroImage 2007 17071110
Expectancy and belief modulate the neuronal substrates of pain treated by acupuncture Pariente J; White P; Frackowiak RS; Lewith G NeuroImage 2005 15850733
Experience-dependent neural substrates involved in vocal pitch regulation during singing Zarate JM; Zatorre RJ NeuroImage 2008 18343163
Exploring the visual world: the neural substrate of spatial orienting Himmelbach M; Erb M; Karnath HO NeuroImage 2006 16806986
Eyeblink-related areas in human cerebellum as shown by fMRI Dimitrova A; Weber J; Maschke M; Elles HG; Kolb FP; Forsting M; Diener HC; Timmann D Human Brain Mapping 2002 12353244
Facilitating memory for novel characters by reducing neural repetition suppression in the left fusiform cortex Xue G; Mei L; Chen C; Lu ZL; Poldrack RA; Dong Q PLoS ONE 2010 20949093
Fear and stop: A role for the amygdala in motor inhibition by emotional signals Sagaspe P; Schwartz S; Vuilleumier P NeuroImage 2011 21272655
Feeling the Real World: Limbic Response to Music Depends on Related Content Eldar E; Ganor O; Admon R; Bleich A; Hendler T Cerebral Cortex 2007 17395609
FMRI adaptation during performance of learned arbitrary visuomotor conditional associations Chouinard PA; Goodale MA NeuroImage 2009 19619662
fMRI congruous word repetition effects reflect memory variability in normal elderly Olichney JM; Taylor JR; Hillert DG; Chan SH; Salmon DP; Gatherwright J; Iragui VJ; Kutas M Neurobiology of Aging 2010 19062135
fMRI evidence for a dual process account of the speed-accuracy tradeoff in decision-making Ivanoff J; Branning P; Marois R PLoS ONE 2008 18612380
FMRI evidence of a functional network setting the criteria for withholding a response Vallesi A; McIntosh AR; Alexander MP; Stuss DT NeuroImage 2009 19162201
FMRI investigation of cross-modal interactions in beat perception: audition primes vision, but not vice versa Grahn JA; Henry MJ; McAuley JD NeuroImage 2011 20858544
fMRI responses to pictures of mutilation and contamination Schienle A; Schafer A; Hermann A; Walter B; Stark R; Vaitl D Neuroscience Letters 2006 16239068
fMRI reveals distinct CNS processing during symptomatic and recovered complex regional pain syndrome in children Lebel A; Becerra L; Wallin D; Moulton EA; Morris S; Pendse G; Jasciewicz J; Stein M; Aiello-Lammens M; Grant E; Berde C; Borsook D Brain 2008 18567621
Force level independent representations of predictive grip force-load force coupling: a PET activation study Boecker H; Lee A; Muhlau M; Ceballos-Baumann A; Ritzl A; Spilker ME; Marquart C; Hermsdorfer J NeuroImage 2005 15734359
Frontal and parietal contributions to arithmetic fact retrieval: A parametric analysis of the problem-size effect Jost K; Khader PH; Burke M; Bien S; Rosler F Human Brain Mapping 2010 20336690
Frontal operculum temporal difference signals and social motor response learning Kumar P; Waiter G; Ahearn T; Milders M; Reid I; Steele JD Human Brain Mapping 2009 18537114
Functional and anatomical connectivity abnormalities in left inferior frontal gyrus in schizophrenia Jeong B; Wible CG; Hashimoto R; Kubicki M Human Brain Mapping 2009 19569073
Functional brain changes in early Parkinson's disease during motor response and motor inhibition Baglio F; Blasi V; Falini A; Farina E; Mantovani F; Olivotto F; Scotti G; Nemni R; Bozzali M Neurobiology of Aging 2011 19188005
Functional brain correlates of heterosexual paedophilia Schiffer B; Paul T; Gizewski E; Forsting M; Leygraf N; Schedlowski M; Kruger TH NeuroImage 2008 18358744
Functional connectivity of dissociative responses in posttraumatic stress disorder: a functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation Lanius RA; Williamson PC; Bluhm RL; Densmore M; Boksman K; Neufeld RW; Gati JS; Menon RS Biological Psychiatry 2005 15820708
Functional Connectivity of Human Striatum: A Resting State fMRI Study Di Martino A; Scheres A; Margulies DS; Kelly AM; Uddin LQ; Shehzad Z; Biswal B; Walters JR; Castellanos FX; Milham MP Cerebral Cortex 2008 18400794
Functional disconnections in the direct and indirect amygdala pathways for fear processing in schizophrenia Das P; Kemp AH; Flynn G; Harris AW; Liddell BJ; Whitford TJ; Peduto A; Gordon E; Williams LM Schizophrenia Research 2007 17222539
Functional grouping and cortical-subcortical interactions in emotion: a meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies Kober H; Barrett LF; Joseph J; Bliss-Moreau E; Lindquist K; Wager TD NeuroImage 2008 18579414
Functional microstates within human REM sleep: first evidence from fMRI of a thalamocortical network specific for phasic REM periods Wehrle R; Kaufmann C; Wetter TC; Holsboer F; Auer DP; Pollmacher T; Czisch M European Journal of Neuroscience 2007 17328781
Functional MRI of the immediate impact of transcranial magnetic stimulation on cortical and subcortical motor circuits Bestmann S; Baudewig J; Siebner HR; Rothwell JC; Frahm J European Journal of Neuroscience 2004 15078569
Functional neural networks of time perception: challenge and opportunity for schizophrenia research Ortuno F; Guillen-Grima F; Lopez-Garcia P; Gomez J; Pla J Schizophrenia Research 2011 21041067
Functional neuroanatomy of the human near/far response to blur cues: eye-lens accommodation/vergence to point targets varying in depth Richter HO; Costello P; Sponheim SR; Lee JT; Pardo JV European Journal of Neuroscience 2004 15548215
Gender differences in the neural correlates of response inhibition during a stop signal task Li CS; Huang C; Constable RT; Sinha R NeuroImage 2006 16806976
Genetically dependent modulation of serotonergic inactivation in the human prefrontal cortex Passamonti L; Cerasa A; Gioia MC; Magariello A; Muglia M; Quattrone A; Fera F NeuroImage 2008 18261931 Guanfacine potentiates the activation of prefrontal cortex evoked by warning signals Clerkin SM; Schulz KP; Halperin JM; Newcorn JH; Ivanov I; Tang CY; Fan J Biological Psychiatry 2009 19520360
Habituation to painful stimulation involves the antinociceptive system Bingel U; Schoell E; Herken W; Buchel C; May A Pain 2007 17258858
High Fetal Testosterone and Sexually Dimorphic Cerebral Networks in Females Ciumas C; Linden Hirschberg A; Savic I Cerebral Cortex 2009 18854582
High-field FMRI reveals brain activation patterns underlying saccade execution in the human superior colliculus Krebs RM; Woldorff MG; Tempelmann C; Bodammer N; Noesselt T; Boehler CN; Scheich H; Hopf JM; Duzel E; Heinze HJ; Schoenfeld MA PLoS ONE 2010 20084170
Hippocampal dysfunction during free word association in male patients with schizophrenia Kircher T; Whitney C; Krings T; Huber W; Weis S Schizophrenia Research 2008 18356025
Human attachment security is mediated by the amygdala: Evidence from combined fMRI and psychophysiological measures Lemche E; Giampietro VP; Surguladze SA; Amaro EJ; Andrew CM; Williams SC; Brammer MJ; Lawrence N; Maier MA; Russell TA; Simmons A; Ecker C; Joraschky P; Phillips ML Human Brain Mapping 2006 16284946
Human Midbrain Sensitivity to Cognitive Feedback and Uncertainty During Classification Learning Aron AR; Shohamy D; Clark J; Myers C; Gluck MA; Poldrack RA Journal of Neurophysiology 2004 15014103
Hyperactive error responses and altered connectivity in ventromedial and frontoinsular cortices in obsessive-compulsive disorder Stern ER; Welsh RC; Fitzgerald KD; Gehring WJ; Lister JJ; Himle JA; Abelson JL; Taylor SF Biological Psychiatry 2011 21144497
Imaging phonology without print: assessing the neural correlates of phonemic awareness using fMRI Katzir T; Misra M; Poldrack RA NeuroImage 2005 15901490
Impaired self-awareness and theory of mind: an fMRI study of mentalizing in alexithymia Moriguchi Y; Ohnishi T; Lane RD; Maeda M; Mori T; Nemoto K; Matsuda H; Komaki G NeuroImage 2006 16798016
Impairment of Attentional Networks after 1 Night of Sleep Deprivation Tomasi D; Wang RL; Telang F; Boronikolas V; Jayne MC; Wang GJ; Fowler JS; Volkow ND Cerebral Cortex 2009 18483003
Implicit emotion during recollection of past events: a nonverbal fMRI study Denkova E; Botzung A; Scheiber C; Manning L Brain Research 2006 16492377
Increased amygdala and parahippocampal gyrus activation in schizophrenic patients with auditory hallucinations: an fMRI study using independent component analysis Escarti MJ; de la Iglesia-Vaya M; Marti-Bonmati L; Robles M; Carbonell J; Lull JJ; Garcia-Marti G; Manjon JV; Aguilar EJ; Aleman A; Sanjuan J Schizophrenia Research 2010 20071145
Increased fMRI responses during encoding in mild cognitive impairment Hamalainen A; Pihlajamaki M; Tanila H; Hanninen T; Niskanen E; Tervo S; Karjalainen PA; Vanninen RL; Soininen H Neurobiology of Aging 2007 16997428
Individual differences in socioaffective skills influence the neural bases of fear processing: The case of alexithymia Pouga L; Berthoz S; de Gelder B; Grezes J Human Brain Mapping 2010 20127873
Inefficient executive cognitive control in schizophrenia is preceded by altered functional activation during information encoding: an fMRI study Schlosser RG; Koch K; Wagner G; Nenadic I; Roebel M; Schachtzabel C; Axer M; Schultz C; Reichenbach JR; Sauer H Neuropsychologia 2008 17707869
Interaction of Working Memory and Long-Term Memory in the Medial Temporal Lobe Axmacher N; Schmitz DP; Weinreich I; Elger CE; Fell J Cerebral Cortex 2008 18403397
Intrinsic functional connectivity of the periaqueductal gray, a resting fMRI study Kong J; Tu PC; Zyloney C; Su TP Behavioural Brain Research 2010 20347878
Investigation of acupoint specificity by functional connectivity analysis based on graph theory Ren Y; Bai L; Feng Y; Tian J; Li K Neuroscience Letters 2010 20619317
Involvement of right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in ill-structured design cognition: an fMRI study Gilbert SJ; Zamenopoulos T; Alexiou K; Johnson JH Brain Research 2010 19948156
Involvement of the inferior frontal junction in cognitive control: Meta-analyses of switching and Stroop studies Derrfuss J; Brass M; Neumann J; von Cramon DY Human Brain Mapping 2005 15846824
Is emotional contagion special? An fMRI study on neural systems for affective and cognitive empathy Nummenmaa L; Hirvonen J; Parkkola R; Hietanen JK NeuroImage 2008 18790065
Is gray matter volume an intermediate phenotype for schizophrenia? A voxel-based morphometry study of patients with schizophrenia and their healthy siblings Honea RA; Meyer-Lindenberg A; Hobbs KB; Pezawas L; Mattay VS; Egan MF; Verchinski B; Passingham RE; Weinberger DR; Callicott JH Biological Psychiatry 2008 17689500
Is there a role of visual cortex in spatial hearing? Zimmer U; Lewald J; Erb M; Grodd W; Karnath HO European Journal of Neuroscience 2004 15579169
Is voice processing species-specific in human auditory cortex? An fMRI study Fecteau S; Armony JL; Joanette Y; Belin P NeuroImage 2004 15528084
Ketamine and fMRI BOLD signal: Distinguishing between effects mediated by change in blood flow versus change in cognitive state Abel KM; Allin MP; Kucharska-Pietura K; Andrew C; Williams S; David AS; Phillips ML Human Brain Mapping 2003 12518293
Lateralized and frequency-dependent effects of prefrontal rTMS on regional cerebral blood flow Knoch D; Treyer V; Regard M; Muri RM; Buck A; Weber B NeuroImage 2006 16497518
Lateralized Anterior Cingulate Function during Error Processing and Conflict Monitoring as Revealed by High-Resolution fMRI Lutcke H; Frahm J Cerebral Cortex 2008 17576750
Left prefrontal cortex control of novel occurrences during recollection: a psychopharmacological study using scopolamine and event-related fMRI Bozzali M; MacPherson SE; Dolan RJ; Shallice T NeuroImage 2006 16919479
Left thalamo-cortical network implicated in successful speech separation and identification Alain C; Reinke K; McDonald KL; Chau W; Tam F; Pacurar A; Graham S NeuroImage 2005 15907316
Looking to the future: Automatic regulation of attention between current performance and future plans Okuda J; Gilbert SJ; Burgess PW; Frith CD; Simons JS Neuropsychologia 2011 21315748
Lying about facial recognition: an fMRI study Bhatt S; Mbwana J; Adeyemo A; Sawyer A; Hailu A; Vanmeter J Brain and Cognition 2009 18848742
Mapping the spinal and supraspinal pathways of dynamic mechanical allodynia in the human trigeminal system using cardiac-gated fMRI Mainero C; Zhang WT; Kumar A; Rosen BR; Sorensen AG NeuroImage 2007 17336547
Measuring brain connectivity: diffusion tensor imaging validates resting state temporal correlations Skudlarski P; Jagannathan K; Calhoun VD; Hampson M; Skudlarska BA; Pearlson G NeuroImage 2008 18771736
Mechanisms of central neuropathic pain: a combined psychophysical and fMRI study in syringomyelia Ducreux D; Attal N; Parker F; Bouhassira D Brain 2006 16434417
Mechanisms of placebo analgesia: rACC recruitment of a subcortical antinociceptive network Bingel U; Lorenz J; Schoell E; Weiller C; Buchel C Pain 2006 16364549
Medial Prefrontal Cortex Activity Is Predictive for Hyperalgesia and Pharmacological Antihyperalgesia Seifert F; Bschorer K; De Col R; Filitz J; Peltz E; Koppert W; Maihofner C Journal of Neuroscience 2009 19439594
Medial temporal lobe activity at recognition increases with the duration of mnemonic delay during an object working memory task Picchioni M; Matthiasson P; Broome M; Giampietro V; Brammer M; Mathes B; Fletcher P; Williams S; McGuire P Human Brain Mapping 2007 17358019
Memory encoding in Alzheimer's disease: an fMRI study of explicit and implicit memory Golby A; Silverberg G; Race E; Gabrieli S; O'Shea J; Knierim K; Stebbins G; Gabrieli J Brain 2005 15705615
Men and women show distinct brain activations during imagery of sexual and emotional infidelity Takahashi H; Matsuura M; Yahata N; Koeda M; Suhara T; Okubo Y NeuroImage 2006 16829139
Mental rotation and object categorization share a common network of prefrontal and dorsal and ventral regions of posterior cortex Schendan HE; Stern CE NeuroImage 2007 17346989
Mental time travel into the past and the future in healthy aged adults: an fMRI study Viard A; Chetelat G; Lebreton K; Desgranges B; Landeau B; de La Sayette V; Eustache F; Piolino P Brain and Cognition 2011 21093970
Mesocorticolimbic circuits are impaired in chronic cocaine users as demonstrated by resting-state functional connectivity Gu H; Salmeron BJ; Ross TJ; Geng X; Zhan W; Stein EA; Yang Y NeuroImage 2010 20603217
Modulation of anticipatory emotion and perception processing by cognitive control Herwig U; Baumgartner T; Kaffenberger T; Bruhl A; Kottlow M; Schreiter-Gasser U; Abler B; Jancke L; Rufer M NeuroImage 2007 17588776
Modulation of brain resting-state networks by sad mood induction Harrison BJ; Pujol J; Ortiz H; Fornito A; Pantelis C; Yucel M PLoS ONE 2008 18350136
Modulation of spontaneous breathing via limbic/paralimbic-bulbar circuitry: an event-related fMRI study Evans KC; Dougherty DD; Schmid AM; Scannell E; McCallister A; Benson H; Dusek JA; Lazar SW NeuroImage 2009 19450692
Mood Influences Supraspinal Pain Processing Separately from Attention Villemure C; Bushnell MC Journal of Neuroscience 2009 19158297
Multiple components of lateral posterior parietal activation associated with cognitive set shifting Asari T; Konishi S; Jimura K; Miyashita Y NeuroImage 2005 15955479
Navigation ability dependent neural activation in the human brain: an fMRI study Ohnishi T; Matsuda H; Hirakata M; Ugawa Y Neuroscience Research 2006 16735070
Network modulation by the subthalamic nucleus in the treatment of Parkinson's disease Trost M; Su S; Su P; Yen RF; Tseng HM; Barnes A; Ma Y; Eidelberg D NeuroImage 2006 16466936
Neural bases of categorization of simple speech and nonspeech sounds Husain FT; Fromm SJ; Pursley RH; Hosey LA; Braun AR; Horwitz B Human Brain Mapping 2006 16281285
Neural Basis of Mental Scanning of a Topographic Representation Built from a Text Cerebral Cortex 2002 12427682
Neural circuitry underlying the regulation of conditioned fear and its relation to extinction Delgado MR; Nearing KI; Ledoux JE; Phelps EA Neuron 2008 18786365
Neural correlates of a 'pessimistic' attitude when anticipating events of unknown emotional valence Herwig U; Kaffenberger T; Baumgartner T; Jancke L NeuroImage 2007 17112750
Neural correlates of counting of sequential sensory and motor events in the human brain Kansaku K; Johnson A; Grillon ML; Garraux G; Sadato N; Hallett M NeuroImage 2006 16460961
Neural correlates of episodic and semantic memory retrieval in borderline personality disorder: an fMRI study Mensebach C; Beblo T; Driessen M; Wingenfeld K; Mertens M; Rullkoetter N; Lange W; Markowitsch HJ; Ollech I; Saveedra AS; Rau H; Woermann FG Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging 2009 19176280
Neural correlates of metaphor processing in schizophrenia Kircher TT; Leube DT; Erb M; Grodd W; Rapp AM NeuroImage 2007 17081771
Neural correlates of motor dysfunction in children with traumatic brain injury: exploration of compensatory recruitment patterns Caeyenberghs K; Wenderoth N; Smits-Engelsman BC; Sunaert S; Swinnen SP Brain 2009 19153150
Neural correlates of primary and reflective consciousness of spatial orienting Bartolomeo P; Zieren N; Vohn R; Dubois B; Sturm W Neuropsychologia 2008 17963799
Neural correlates of social cooperation and non-cooperation as a function of psychopathy Rilling JK; Glenn AL; Jairam MR; Pagnoni G; Goldsmith DR; Elfenbein HA; Lilienfeld SO Biological Psychiatry 2007 17046722
Neural correlates of syntactic transformations Wartenburger I; Heekeren HR; Burchert F; Heinemann S; De Bleser R; Villringer A Human Brain Mapping 2004 15083528
Neural correlates of the interactive relationship between memory deficits and depressive symptoms in nondemented elderly: Resting fMRI study Goveas J; Xie C; Wu Z; Douglas Ward B; Li W; Franczak MB; Jones JL; Antuono PG; Yang Z; Li SJ Behavioural Brain Research 2011 21238490
Neural correlates of the misattribution of self-generated speech Allen PP; Amaro E; Fu CH; Williams SC; Brammer M; Johns LC; McGuire PK Human Brain Mapping 2005 15884023
Neural correlates of the object-recall process in semantic memory Assaf M; Calhoun VD; Kuzu CH; Kraut MA; Rivkin PR; Hart J Jr; Pearlson GD Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging 2006 16938439
Neural correlates of tic generation in Tourette syndrome: an event-related functional MRI study Bohlhalter S; Goldfine A; Matteson S; Garraux G; Hanakawa T; Kansaku K; Wurzman R; Hallett M Brain 2006 16520330
Neural correlates of two imagined egocentric transformations Creem-Regehr SH; Neil JA; Yeh HJ NeuroImage 2007 17275336
Neural correlates of using distancing to regulate emotional responses to social situations Koenigsberg HW; Fan J; Ochsner KN; Liu X; Guise K; Pizzarello S; Dorantes C; Tecuta L; Guerreri S; Goodman M; New A; Flory J; Siever LJ Neuropsychologia 2010 20226799
Neural correlates of voluntary and involuntary risk taking in the human brain: an fMRI Study of the Balloon Analog Risk Task (BART) Rao H; Korczykowski M; Pluta J; Hoang A; Detre JA NeuroImage 2008 18582578
Neural impact of the semantic content of visual mental images and visual percepts Mazard A; Laou L; Joliot M; Mellet E Cognitive Brain Research 2005 16099355
Neural networks for short-term memory for order differentiate high and low proficiency bilinguals Majerus S; Belayachi S; De Smedt B; Leclercq AL; Martinez T; Schmidt C; Weekes B; Maquet P NeuroImage 2008 18602483
Neural processing of asynchronous audiovisual speech perception Stevenson RA; Altieri NA; Kim S; Pisoni DB; James TW NeuroImage 2010 20004723
Neural processing of reward magnitude under varying attentional demands Stoppel CM; Boehler CN; Strumpf H; Heinze HJ; Hopf JM; Schoenfeld MA Brain Research 2011 21295019
Neural Response to Reward Anticipation under Risk Is Nonlinear in Probabilities Hsu M; Krajbich I; Zhao C; Camerer CF Journal of Neuroscience 2009 19228976
Neural responses to acute cocaine administration in the human brain detected by fMRI Kufahl PR; Li Z; Risinger RC; Rainey CJ; Wu G; Bloom AS; Li SJ NeuroImage 2005 16061398
Neural reward processing is modulated by approach- and avoidance-related personality traits Simon JJ; Walther S; Fiebach CJ; Friederich HC; Stippich C; Weisbrod M; Kaiser S NeuroImage 2010 19770056
Neural substrates of implicit cueing effect on prospective memory Hashimoto T; Umeda S; Kojima S NeuroImage 2011 20673802
Neural substrates of knowledge of hand postures for object grasping and functional object use: evidence from fMRI Buxbaum LJ; Kyle KM; Tang K; Detre JA Brain Research 2006 16962075
Neural substrates of letter fluency processing in young adults who were born very preterm: alterations in frontal and striatal regions Nosarti C; Shergill SS; Allin MP; Walshe M; Rifkin L; Murray RM; McGuire PK NeuroImage 2009 19376243
Neural substrates of tactile object recognition: An fMRI study Reed CL; Shoham S; Halgren E Human Brain Mapping 2004 15038005
Neural systems for sign language production: Mechanisms supporting lexical selection, phonological encoding, and articulation San Jose-Robertson L; Corina DP; Ackerman D; Guillemin A; Braun AR Human Brain Mapping 2004 15449359
Neuroanatomical Correlates of Motor Acquisition and Motor Transfer Seidler RD; Noll DC Journal of Neurophysiology 2008 18272874
Neuroanatomical differences in brain areas implicated in perceptual and other core features of autism revealed by cortical thickness analysis and voxel-based morphometry Hyde KL; Samson F; Evans AC; Mottron L Human Brain Mapping 2010 19790171
Neurobehavioral mechanisms of human fear generalization Dunsmoor JE; Prince SE; Murty VP; Kragel PA; Labar KS NeuroImage 2011 21256233
Nicotine replacement in abstinent smokers improves cognitive withdrawal symptoms with modulation of resting brain network dynamics Cole DM; Beckmann CF; Long CJ; Matthews PM; Durcan MJ; Beaver JD NeuroImage 2010 20441798
Nonlinear relationship between emotional valence and brain activity: Evidence of separate negative and positive valence dimensions Viinikainen M; Jaaskelainen IP; Alexandrov Y; Balk MH; Autti T; Sams M Human Brain Mapping 2010 19957266
On a basal ganglia role in learning and rehearsing visual-motor associations Bedard P; Sanes JN NeuroImage 2009 19341805
On the selection of words and oral motor responses: evidence of a response-independent fronto-parietal network Tremblay P; Gracco VL Cortex 2010 19362298
Online mentalising investigated with functional MRI Kircher T; Blumel I; Marjoram D; Lataster T; Krabbendam L; Weber J; van Os J; Krach S Neuroscience Letters 2009 19429079
Parsing neural mechanisms of social and physical risk identifications Qin J; Han S Human Brain Mapping 2009 18570205
Pathological amygdala activation during working memory performance: Evidence for a pathophysiological trait marker in bipolar affective disorder Gruber O; Tost H; Henseler I; Schmael C; Scherk H; Ende G; Ruf M; Falkai P; Rietschel M Human Brain Mapping 2010 19603410
Persistent posterior and transient anterior medial temporal lobe activity during navigation Xu J; Evensmoen HR; Lehn H; Pintzka CW; Haberg AK NeuroImage 2010 20685394
Pheromone signal transduction in humans: What can be learned from olfactory loss Savic I; Heden-Blomqvist E; Berglund H Human Brain Mapping 2009 19235878
Phospholipase A2 activity is associated with structural brain changes in schizophrenia Smesny S; Milleit B; Nenadic I; Preul C; Kinder D; Lasch J; Willhardt I; Sauer H; Gaser C NeuroImage 2010 20478385
Pinning down response inhibition in the brain–conjunction analyses of the Stop-signal task Boehler CN; Appelbaum LG; Krebs RM; Hopf JM; Woldorff MG NeuroImage 2010 20452445
Policy adjustment in a dynamic economic game Li J; McClure SM; King-Casas B; Montague PR PLoS ONE 2006 17183636
Posteromedial Parietal Cortical Activity and Inputs Predict Tactile Spatial Acuity Stilla R; Deshpande G; LaConte S; Hu X; Sathian K Journal of Neuroscience 2007 17928451
Pramipexole modulates the neural network of reward anticipation Ye Z; Hammer A; Camara E; Munte TF Human Brain Mapping 2010 21058276
Predicting and memorizing observed action: Differential premotor cortex involvement Stadler W; Schubotz RI; von Cramon DY; Springer A; Graf M; Prinz W Human Brain Mapping 2010 20225220
Processing of social and monetary rewards in the human striatum Izuma K; Saito DN; Sadato N Neuron 2008 18439412
Progressive increase of frontostriatal brain activation from childhood to adulthood during event-related tasks of cognitive control Rubia K; Smith AB; Woolley J; Nosarti C; Heyman I; Taylor E; Brammer M Human Brain Mapping 2006 16683265
Reduced functional connectivity between V1 and inferior frontal cortex associated with visuomotor performance in autism Villalobos ME; Mizuno A; Dahl BC; Kemmotsu N; Muller RA NeuroImage 2005 15808991
Reduced neuronal efficacy in progressive mild cognitive impairment: a prospective fMRI study on visuospatial processing Vannini P; Almkvist O; Dierks T; Lehmann C; Wahlund LO Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging 2007 17719211
Regional cerebral blood flow changes associated with clitorally induced orgasm in healthy women Georgiadis JR; Kortekaas R; Kuipers R; Nieuwenburg A; Pruim J; Reinders AA; Holstege G European Journal of Neuroscience 2006 17156391
Regional specificity of MRI contrast parameter changes in normal ageing revealed by voxel-based quantification (VBQ) Draganski B; Ashburner J; Hutton C; Kherif F; Frackowiak RS; Helms G; Weiskopf N NeuroImage 2011 21277375
Response Anticipation and Response Conflict: An Event-Related Potential and Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study Fan J; Kolster R; Ghajar J; Suh M; Knight RT; Sarkar R; McCandliss BD Journal of Neuroscience 2007 17329424
Response of anterior temporal cortex to syntactic and prosodic manipulations during sentence processing Humphries C; Love T; Swinney D; Hickok G Human Brain Mapping 2005 15895428
Role of Prefrontal and Parietal Cortices in Associative Learning Anderson JR; Byrne D; Fincham JM; Gunn P Cerebral Cortex 2008 17675369
Sadness enhances the experience of pain via neural activation in the anterior cingulate cortex and amygdala: an fMRI study Yoshino A; Okamoto Y; Onoda K; Yoshimura S; Kunisato Y; Demoto Y; Okada G; Yamawaki S NeuroImage 2010 19969094
Separating brain regions involved in internally guided and visual feedback control of moving effectors: an event-related fMRI study Ogawa K; Inui T; Sugio T NeuroImage 2006 16863694
Separating the effects of alcohol and expectancy on brain activation: an fMRI working memory study Gundersen H; Specht K; Gruner R; Ersland L; Hugdahl K NeuroImage 2008 18588989
Sex and performance level effects on brain activation during a verbal fluency task: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study Gauthier CT; Duyme M; Zanca M; Capron C Cortex 2009 19150518
Sex differences in brain activation to anticipated and experienced pain in the medial prefrontal cortex Straube T; Schmidt S; Weiss T; Mentzel HJ; Miltner WH Human Brain Mapping 2009 18219622
Sex differences in cortical and subcortical recruitment during simple and complex motor control: an fMRI study Lissek S; Hausmann M; Knossalla F; Peters S; Nicolas V; Gunturkun O; Tegenthoff M NeuroImage 2007 17629502
Sex differences in regional gray matter in healthy individuals aged 44-48 years: a voxel-based morphometric study Chen X; Sachdev PS; Wen W; Anstey KJ NeuroImage 2007 17499524
Short- and long-term changes in anterior cingulate activation during resolution of task-set competition Woodward TS; Ruff CC; Ngan ET Brain Research 2006 16376861
Social conceptual impairments in frontotemporal lobar degeneration with right anterior temporal hypometabolism Zahn R; Moll J; Iyengar V; Huey ED; Tierney M; Krueger F; Grafman J Brain 2009 19153155
Somatotopic organisation of the human insula to painful heat studied with high resolution functional imaging Brooks JC; Zambreanu L; Godinez A; Craig AD; Tracey I NeuroImage 2005 15921935
Some neurophysiological constraints on models of word naming Binder JR; Medler DA; Desai R; Conant LL; Liebenthal E NeuroImage 2005 15921937
Spatio-temporal brain dynamics in a combined stimulus-stimulus and stimulus-response conflict task Fruhholz S; Godde B; Finke M; Herrmann M NeuroImage 2011 20691791
Stimulus type and design influence hemodynamic responses towards visual disgust and fear elicitors Schafer A; Schienle A; Vaitl D International Journal of Psychophysiology 2005 15935261
Structural and functional bases for individual differences in motor learning Tomassini V; Jbabdi S; Kincses ZT; Bosnell R; Douaud G; Pozzilli C; Matthews PM; Johansen-Berg H Human Brain Mapping 2010 20533562
Temporal lobe interictal epileptic discharges affect cerebral activity in ���default mode��� brain regions Laufs H; Hamandi K; Salek-Haddadi A; Kleinschmidt AK; Duncan JS; Lemieux L Human Brain Mapping 2007 17133385
Temporal Order Judgments Activate Temporal Parietal Junction Davis B; Christie J; Rorden C Journal of Neuroscience 2009 19279255
The BOLD correlates of the visual P1 and N1 in single-trial analysis of simultaneous EEG-fMRI recordings during a spatial detection task Novitskiy N; Ramautar JR; Vanderperren K; De Vos M; Mennes M; Mijovic B; Vanrumste B; Stiers P; Van den Bergh B; Lagae L; Sunaert S; Van Huffel S; Wagemans J NeuroImage 2011 20869449
The brain basis of piano performance Parsons LM; Sergent J; Hodges DA; Fox PT Neuropsychologia 2005 15707905
The Brain Network Underlying Serial Visual Search: Comparing Overt and Covert Spatial Orienting, for Activations and for Effective Connectivity Fairhall SL; Indovina I; Driver J; Macaluso E Cerebral Cortex 2009 19395524
The effect of opioid receptor blockade on the neural processing of thermal stimuli Schoell ED; Bingel U; Eippert F; Yacubian J; Christiansen K; Andresen H; May A; Buechel C PLoS ONE 2010 20811582
The Effects of Stimulus Modality and Frequency of Stimulus Presentation on Cross-modal Distraction Mayer AR; Franco AR; Canive J; Harrington DL Cerebral Cortex 2009 18787235
The effects of tryptophan depletion on neural responses to emotional words in remitted depression Roiser JP; Levy J; Fromm SJ; Nugent AC; Talagala SL; Hasler G; Henn FA; Sahakian BJ; Drevets WC Biological Psychiatry 2009 19539268
The functional neuroanatomy of maternal love: mother's response to infant's attachment behaviors Noriuchi M; Kikuchi Y; Senoo A Biological Psychiatry 2008 17686467
The human orbitofrontal cortex monitors outcomes even when no reward is at stake Schnider A; Treyer V; Buck A Neuropsychologia 2005 15707609
The influence of response conflict on error processing: evidence from event-related fMRI Wittfoth M; Kustermann E; Fahle M; Herrmann M Brain Research 2008 18177843
The left parietal cortex and motor intention: an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study Hesse MD; Thiel CM; Stephan KE; Fink GR Neuroscience 2006 16675134
The Neural Architecture of Music-Evoked Autobiographical Memories Janata P Cerebral Cortex 2009 19240137
The neural bases of emotion regulation: reappraisal and suppression of negative emotion Goldin PR; McRae K; Ramel W; Gross JJ Biological Psychiatry 2008 17888411
The neural basis of overall similarity and single-dimension sorting Milton F; Wills AJ; Hodgson TL NeuroImage 2009 19457383
The neural correlates of direct and reflected self-knowledge Ochsner KN; Beer JS; Robertson ER; Cooper JC; Gabrieli JD; Kihsltrom JF; D'Esposito M NeuroImage 2005 16290016
The Neural Correlates of Human Working Memory for Haptically Explored Object Orientations Kaas AL; van Mier H; Goebel R Cerebral Cortex 2007 16966490
The neural temporal dynamics of the intensity of emotional experience Waugh CE; Hamilton JP; Gotlib IH NeuroImage 2010 19833213
The power of imagination–how anticipatory mental imagery alters perceptual processing of fearful facial expressions Diekhof EK; Kipshagen HE; Falkai P; Dechent P; Baudewig J; Gruber O NeuroImage 2011 20797441
The Resting Brain: Unconstrained yet Reliable Shehzad Z; Kelly AM; Reiss PT; Gee DG; Gotimer K; Uddin LQ; Lee SH; Margulies DS; Roy AK; Biswal BB; Petkova E; Castellanos FX; Milham MP Cerebral Cortex 2009 19221144
The role of the left inferior frontal gyrus in implicit semantic competition and selection: An event-related fMRI study Grindrod CM; Bilenko NY; Myers EB; Blumstein SE Brain Research 2008 18656462
The spatial and temporal dynamics of anticipatory preparation and response inhibition in task-switching Jamadar S; Hughes M; Fulham WR; Michie PT; Karayanidis F NeuroImage 2010 20123028
The Spatial Attention Network Interacts with Limbic and Monoaminergic Systems to Modulate Motivation-Induced Attention Shifts Mohanty A; Gitelman DR; Small DM; Mesulam MM Cerebral Cortex 2008 18308706
The supraspinal neural correlate of bladder cold sensation-An fMRI study Mehnert U; Michels L; Zempleni MZ; Schurch B; Kollias S Human Brain Mapping 2010 20661957
The target selective neural response–similarity, ambiguity, and learning effects Hampshire A; Thompson R; Duncan J; Owen AM PLoS ONE 2008 18575585
Three Stages and Four Neural Systems in Time Estimation Morillon B; Kell CA; Giraud AL Journal of Neuroscience 2009 19940175
Time course of amygdala activation during aversive conditioning depends on attention Straube T; Weiss T; Mentzel HJ; Miltner WH NeuroImage 2007 17070072
Time-varied characteristics of acupuncture effects in fMRI studies Bai L; Qin W; Tian J; Liu P; Li L; Chen P; Dai J; Craggs JG; von Deneen KM; Liu Y Human Brain Mapping 2009 19350547
Triangulating a Cognitive Control Network Using Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Functional MRI Aron AR; Behrens TE; Smith S; Frank MJ; Poldrack RA Journal of Neuroscience 2007 17409238
Trigeminal Neuropathic Pain Alters Responses in CNS Circuits to Mechanical (Brush) and Thermal (Cold and Heat) Stimuli Becerra L; Morris S; Bazes S; Gostic R; Sherman S; Gostic J; Pendse G; Moulton E; Scrivani S; Keith D; Chizh B; Borsook D Journal of Neuroscience 2006 17050704
Unmixing concurrent EEG-fMRI with parallel independent component analysis Eichele T; Calhoun VD; Moosmann M; Specht K; Jongsma ML; Quiroga RQ; Nordby H; Hugdahl K International Journal of Psychophysiology 2008 17688963
Utilizing the ventriloquism-effect to investigate audio-visual binding Bischoff M; Walter B; Blecker CR; Morgen K; Vaitl D; Sammer G Neuropsychologia 2007 16620884
Variations in the human cannabinoid receptor (CNR1) gene modulate striatal responses to happy faces Chakrabarti B; Kent L; Suckling J; Bullmore E; Baron-Cohen S European Journal of Neuroscience 2006 16623851
Whole-head MEG analysis of cortical spatial organization from unilateral stimulation of median nerve in both hands: no complete hemispheric homology Theuvenet PJ; van Dijk BW; Peters MJ; van Ree JM; Lopes da Silva FL; Chen AC NeuroImage 2005 16040256
Widespread disruption in brain activation patterns to a working memory task during cocaine abstinence Tomasi D; Goldstein RZ; Telang F; Maloney T; Alia-Klein N; Caparelli EC; Volkow ND Brain Research 2007 17765877
Widespread reward-system activation in obese women in response to pictures of high-calorie foods Stoeckel LE; Weller RE; Cook EW 3rd; Twieg DB; Knowlton RC; Cox JE NeuroImage 2008 18413289
Women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder compared to normal females: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study Arnow BA; Millheiser L; Garrett A; Lake Polan M; Glover GH; Hill KR; Lightbody A; Watson C; Banner L; Smart T; Buchanan T; Desmond JE Neuroscience 2009 18976696