PAG(dorso-lateral, ventro-lateral, and lateral PAG)

Image and Location

Anatomical illustration from Linnman et al.(2012)

Functional Activation map from Linnman et al.(2012) and Buhle et al.(2012): for pdfs, see below


Neurosynth connectivity image:

PAG connections based on DTI from Linnman et al.(2012)

from Benarroch(2012)

Subregions of PAG

Animal(Rats) literatures (Resstel et al., 2008; Zhao et al., 2009)

Schematic illustration of functional sub-areas from Linnman et al.(2012)




Searches so far:

Most important references

review papers: Linnman, Moulton, Barmettler, Becerra, & Borsook (2012) Neuroimaging of the periaqueductal gray: State of the field, Neuroimage, 60, 505-522 linnman-2012-neuroimaging_of_the.pdf
Buhle et al.(in press) Common representation of pain and negative emotion in the midbrain periaqueductal gray, SCAN soc_cogn_affect_neurosci-2012-buhle-scan_nss038_1_.pdf
Benarroch, E. E. (2012). Periaqueductal gray: an interface for behavioral control. Neurology, 78(3), 210-7. neurology-2012-benarroch-210-7.pdf
Kong, J., Tu, P.-chi, Zyloney, C., & Su, T.-ping. (2010). Intrinsic functional connectivity of the periaqueductal gray, a resting fMRI study. Behavioural brain research, 211(2), 215-9. 1-s2.0-s0166432810002287-main.pdf



Table from Benarroch (2012)


Table from Benarroch (2012)

Figure from Linnman et al.(2012)


Summary list

Functional activation of the PAG (from Linnman et al., 2012)
* Pain

  1. lower back pain
  2. neuropathic pain
  3. complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)

* pain modulation

  1. habituation
  2. attention/distraction
  3. placebo
  4. acupuncture

* Emotions

  1. pain anticipation
  2. observing pain
  3. fear
  4. social rejection
  5. some positive emotions
  6. anxiety in the clinical population (OCD, PTSD)

* Homeostatic and physiological processes

  1. cardiovascular regulation
  2. respiratory function
  3. micturition
  4. bowel function

Table from from Benarroch(2012)

Pain and pain modulation

Effects of stimulation

  • Y. Hosobuchi, J.E. Adams, R. Linchitz (1977) Pain relief by electrical stimulation of the central gray matter in humans and its reversal by naloxone, Science, 197, 183–186
  • B.H. Lee, S.H. Park, R. Won, Y.G. Park, J.H. Sohn (2000) Antiallodynic effects produced by stimulation of the periaqueductal gray matter in a rat model of neuropathic pain, Neurosci. Lett., 291, 29–32
  • R. Levine, M.M. Morgan, J.T. Cannon, J.C. Liebeskind (1991) Stimulation of the periaqueductal gray matter of the rat produces a preferential ipsilateral antinociception, Brain Res., 567, 140–144

Effects of lesions/inactivation

  • Mendes-Gomes, J., V. C. Amaral, et al. (2011). “Ventrolateral periaqueductal gray lesion attenuates nociception but does not change anxiety-like indices or fear-induced antinociception in mice.” Behav Brain Res 219(2): 248-253.
  • Mendes-Gomes, J. and R. L. Nunes-de-Souza (2009). “Anxiolytic-like effects produced by bilateral lesion of the periaqueductal gray in mice: Influence of concurrent nociceptive stimulation.” Behav Brain Res 203(2): 180-187.
  • Haghparast, A. and L. Ahmad-Molaei (2009). “Effects of electrolytic lesion of dorsolateral periaqueductal gray on analgesic response of morphine microinjected into the nucleus cuneiformis in rat.” Neurosci Lett 451(2): 165-169.
  • Leman, S., R. A. Dielenberg, et al. (2003). “Effect of dorsal periaqueductal gray lesion on cardiovascular and behavioural responses to contextual conditioned fear in rats.” Behav Brain Res 143(2): 169-176.
  • Vianna, D. M., F. G. Graeff, et al. (2001). “Lesion of the ventral periaqueductal gray reduces conditioned fear but does not change freezing induced by stimulation of the dorsal periaqueductal gray.” Learn Mem 8(3): 164-169.

Effects of microinjection

  • Pelosi, G. G., C. Busnardo, et al. (2012). “Cardiovascular responses to glutamate microinjection in the dorsomedial periaqueductal gray of unanesthetized rats.” J Neurosci Res.
  • Azhdari Zarmehri, H., S. Semnanian, et al. (2011). “Intra-periaqueductal gray matter microinjection of orexin-A decreases formalin-induced nociceptive behaviors in adult male rats.” J Pain 12(2): 280-287.
  • Deolindo, M. V., G. G. Pelosi, et al. (2011). “Cardiovascular effects of acetylcholine microinjection into the ventrolateral and dorsal periaqueductal gray of rats.” Brain Res 1371: 74-81.
  • Morgan, M. M., E. N. Bobeck, et al. (2009). “Glutamate modulation of antinociception, but not tolerance, produced by morphine microinjection into the periaqueductal gray of the rat.” Brain Res 1295: 59-66.
  • Pelosi, G. G., L. L. Resstel, et al. (2009). “Anxiolytic-like effect of noradrenaline microinjection into the dorsal periaqueductal gray of rats.” Behav Pharmacol 20(3): 252-259.
  • Pelosi, G. G., R. F. Tavares, et al. (2008). “Cardiovascular responses to noradrenaline microinjection in the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray of unanesthetized rats.” J Neurosci Res 86(3): 712-719.
  • Tortorici, V., M. M. Morgan, et al. (2001). “Tolerance to repeated microinjection of morphine into the periaqueductal gray is associated with changes in the behavior of off- and on-cells in the rostral ventromedial medulla of rats.” Pain 89(2-3): 237-244.
  • Sohn, J. H., B. H. Lee, et al. (2000). “Microinjection of opiates into the periaqueductal gray matter attenuates neuropathic pain symptoms in rats.” Neuroreport 11(7): 1413-1416.


  • List with references.
  • Unordered List Item


Function Area 2

Effects of stimulation

  • List with references.
  • Unordered List Item

Effects of lesions/inactivation

  • List with references.
  • Unordered List Item

Effects of microinjection

  • List with references.
  • Unordered List Item


  • List with references.
  • Unordered List Item


Studies activating


Coordinates (x, y, z):

From Linnman et al.(2012)

“225 coordinates labeled as the PAG in the manuscripts were identified: 100 were on the left, 100 on the right and 25 at the midline. The average (± SD) MNI coordinates reported as the PAG were x = −4 (left) or 4 (right) (±3 mm), y=−29 (±5), z=−12 (±7). The reported coordinates ranged 34 mm in the left-right (x) direction, 35 mm in the anterior–posterior (y) direction, and 46 mm in the dorsal-caudal (z) direction. The peak activation likelihood estimate fell at MNI x = 1, y = − 29, z = − 12.” (p.508)

Specific study coordinates

Study Description x y z
Linnman et al. 2012 Peak activation likelihood estimate 1 -29 -12
Buhle et al. 2012 Overlap of Pain and Negative Image Viewing -6 -30 -15
Napadow et al. 2008 Neural correlate of HRV -2 -27 -3

dlPAG/vlPAG coordinates

by utilizing a landmake(i.e., around the cerebral aqueduct) and Bandler's diagram.

dlPAG : x: 3/-2, y: -36.5, z: -12 vlPAG : x: 4/-2, y: -32, z: -14

List of Studies

Specific, key studies

* Benarroch, E. E. (2012). Periaqueductal gray: an interface for behavioral control. Neurology, 78(3), 210-7. doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e31823fcdee * Borelli, K. G., & Brandao, M. L. (2008). Effects of ovine CRF injections into the dorsomedial, dorsolateral and lateral columns of the periaqueductal gray: a functional role for the dorsomedial column. Hormones and behavior, 53(1), 40-50. doi:10.1016/j.yhbeh.2007.08.013 * Brandão, M. L., Zanoveli, J. M., Ruiz-Martinez, R. C., Oliveira, L. C., & Landeira-Fernandez, J. (2008). Different patterns of freezing behavior organized in the periaqueductal gray of rats: association with different types of anxiety. Behavioural brain research, 188(1), 1-13. doi:10.1016/j.bbr.2007.10.018 * Brutus, M., Shaikh, M. B., & Siegel, a. (1985). Differential control of hypothalamically elicited flight behavior by the midbrain periaqueductal gray in the cat. Behavioural brain research, 17(3), 235-44. * Buhle, J. T., Kober, H., Ochsner, K. N., Mende-Siedlecki, P., Weber, J., Hughes, B. L., Kross, E., et al. (2012). Common representation of pain and negative emotion in the midbrain periaqueductal gray. Social cognitive and affective neuroscience. doi:10.1093/scan/nss038 * Chaitoff, K. a, Patel, D., & Ally, A. (2008). Effects of endothelial NOS antagonism within the periaqueductal gray on cardiovascular responses and neurotransmission during mechanical, heat, and cold nociception. Brain research, 1236, 93-104. doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2008.08.004 * Fanselow, M., DeCola, J., De Oca, B., & Landeira-Fernandez, J. (1995). Ventral and Dorsolateral regions of the midbrain PAG control different stages of defensive behavior. Aggressive Behavior, 21, 63-77. Aggressive Behavior. * Graeff, F. G. (2004). Serotonin, the periaqueductal gray and panic. Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews, 28(3), 239-59. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2003.12.004 * Horiuchi, J., McDowall, L. M., & Dampney, R. a L. (2009). Vasomotor and respiratory responses evoked from the dorsolateral periaqueductal grey are mediated by the dorsomedial hypothalamus. The Journal of physiology, 587(Pt 21), 5149-62. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2009.179739 * Lim, L. W., Blokland, A., Tan, S., Vlamings, R., Sesia, T., Aziz-Mohammadi, M., Visser-Vandewalle, V., et al. (2010). Attenuation of fear-like response by escitalopram treatment after electrical stimulation of the midbrain dorsolateral periaqueductal gray. Experimental neurology, 226(2), 293-300. Elsevier Inc. doi:10.1016/j.expneurol.2010.08.035 * Lim, L. W., Blokland, A., Visser-Vandewalle, V., Vlamings, R., Sesia, T., Steinbusch, H., Schruers, K., et al. (2008). High-frequency stimulation of the dorsolateral periaqueductal gray and ventromedial hypothalamus fails to inhibit panic-like behaviour. Behavioural brain research, 193(2), 197-203. doi:10.1016/j.bbr.2008.05.020 * Lima, V. C. F., Molchanov, M. L., Aguiar, D. C., Campos, A. C., & Guimarães, F. S. (2008). Modulation of defensive responses and anxiety-like behaviors by group I metabotropic glutamate receptors located in the dorsolateral periaqueductal gray. Progress in neuro-psychopharmacology & biological psychiatry, 32(1), 178-85. doi:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2007.08.006 * Linnman, C., Moulton, E. a, Barmettler, G., Becerra, L., & Borsook, D. (2012). Neuroimaging of the periaqueductal gray: State of the field. NeuroImage, 60(1), 505-22. Elsevier Inc. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.11.095 * Markgraf, C. G., Winters, R. W., Liskowsky, D. R., McCabe, P. M., Green, E. J., & Schneiderman, N. (1991). Hypothalamic, midbrain and bulbar areas involved in the defense reaction in rabbits. Physiology & behavior, 49(3), 493-500. Retrieved from * Mendes-Gomes, J., Amaral, V. C. S., & Nunes-de-Souza, R. L. (2011). Ventrolateral periaqueductal gray lesion attenuates nociception but does not change anxiety-like indices or fear-induced antinociception in mice. Behavioural brain research, 219(2), 248-53. Elsevier B.V. doi:10.1016/j.bbr.2011.01.012 * Napadow, V., Dhond, R., Conti, G., Makris, N., Brown, E. N., & Barbieri, R. (2008). Brain correlates of autonomic modulation: combining heart rate variability with fMRI. NeuroImage, 42(1), 169-77. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2008.04.238 * Pereira, E. a C., Lu, G., Wang, S., Schweder, P. M., Hyam, J. a, Stein, J. F., Paterson, D. J., et al. (2010). Ventral periaqueductal grey stimulation alters heart rate variability in humans with chronic pain. Experimental neurology, 223(2), 574-81. Elsevier Inc. doi:10.1016/j.expneurol.2010.02.004 * Resstel, L. B. M., Lisboa, S. F., Aguiar, D. C., Corrêa, F. M. a, & Guimarães, F. S. (2008). Activation of CB1 cannabinoid receptors in the dorsolateral periaqueductal gray reduces the expression of contextual fear conditioning in rats. Psychopharmacology, 198(3), 405-11. doi:10.1007/s00213-008-1156-1 * Sita, L. V., Elias, C. F., & Bittencourt, J. C. (2007). Connectivity pattern suggests that incerto-hypothalamic area belongs to the medial hypothalamic system. Neuroscience, 148(4), 949-69. doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2007.07.010 * Spolidório, P. C. M., Echeverry, M. B., Iyomasa, M., Guimarães, F. S., & Del Bel, E. a. (2007). Anxiolytic effects induced by inhibition of the nitric oxide-cGMP pathway in the rat dorsal hippocampus. Psychopharmacology, 195(2), 183-92. doi:10.1007/s00213-007-0890-0 * Subramanian, H. H., Balnave, R. J., & Holstege, G. (2008). The midbrain periaqueductal gray control of respiration. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience, 28(47), 12274-83. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4168-08.2008 * Suzuki, H., Watanabe, S., Hamaguchi, T., Mine, H., Terui, T., Kanazawa, M., Oohisa, N., et al. (2009). Brain activation associated with changes in heart rate, heart rate variability, and plasma catecholamines during rectal distention. Psychosomatic medicine, 71(6), 619-26. doi:10.1097/PSY.0b013e31819b69ca * Vianna, D. M., Landeira-Fernandez, J., & Brandão, M. L. (2001). Dorsolateral and ventral regions of the periaqueductal gray matter are involved in distinct types of fear. Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews, 25(7-8), 711-9. Retrieved from * Waters, a J., & Lumb, B. M. (1997). Inhibitory effects evoked from both the lateral and ventrolateral periaqueductal grey are selective for the nociceptive responses of rat dorsal horn neurones. Brain research, 752(1-2), 239-49. Retrieved from * Wilson, a, & Kapp, B. S. (1994). Effect of lesions of the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray on the Pavlovian conditioned heart rate response in the rabbit. Behavioral and neural biology, 62(1), 73-6. * Xing, J., Li, D.-P., & Li, J. (2008). Role of GABA receptors in nitric oxide inhibition of dorsolateral periaqueductal gray neurons. Neuropharmacology, 54(4), 734-44. doi:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2007.12.008 * Zhao, Z., Yang, Y., Walker, D. L., & Davis, M. (2009). Effects of substance P in the amygdala, ventromedial hypothalamus, and periaqueductal gray on fear-potentiated startle. Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology, 34(2), 331-40. doi:10.1038/npp.2008.55 * de Menezes, R. C. a, Zaretsky, D. V., Fontes, M. a P., & DiMicco, J. a. (2009). Cardiovascular and thermal responses evoked from the periaqueductal grey require neuronal activity in the hypothalamus. The Journal of physiology, 587(Pt 6), 1201-15. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2008.161463

Study list: Coordinate based

Neurosynth results for coordinate(s)

Title; Author; Journal; Year; PMD

A Common Prefrontal-Parietal Network for Mnemonic and Mathematical Recoding Strategies within Working Memory Bor D; Owen AM Cerebral Cortex 2007 16707737 A functional magnetic resonance imaging study of working memory abnormalities in schizophrenia Johnson MR; Morris NA; Astur RS; Calhoun VD; Mathalon DH; Kiehl KA; Pearlson GD Biological Psychiatry 2006 16503328 A left amygdala mediated network for rapid orienting to masked fearful faces Carlson JM; Reinke KS; Habib R Neuropsychologia 2009 19428403 A meta-analysis of instructed fear studies: implications for conscious appraisal of threat Mechias ML; Etkin A; Kalisch R NeuroImage 2010 19786103 A meta-analytic study of changes in brain activation in depression Fitzgerald PB; Laird AR; Maller J; Daskalakis ZJ Human Brain Mapping 2008 17598168 A neural system for evaluating the behavioural relevance of salient events outside the current focus of attention Gruber O; Diekhof EK; Kirchenbauer L; Goschke T Brain Research 2010 20599810 A role for the brainstem in central sensitisation in humans. Evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging Zambreanu L; Wise RG; Brooks JC; Iannetti GD; Tracey I Pain 2005 15777865 A supramodal limbic-paralimbic-neocortical network supports goal-directed stimulus processing Laurens KR; Kiehl KA; Liddle PF Human Brain Mapping 2005 15593271 A voxel-based morphometry study of grey matter loss in MS patients with different clinical phenotypes Ceccarelli A; Rocca MA; Pagani E; Colombo B; Martinelli V; Comi G; Filippi M NeuroImage 2008 18501636 Abnormal activity patterns in premotor cortex during sequence learning in autistic patients Muller RA; Cauich C; Rubio MA; Mizuno A; Courchesne E Biological Psychiatry 2004 15336514 Abnormal temporal difference reward-learning signals in major depression Kumar P; Waiter G; Ahearn T; Milders M; Reid I; Steele JD Brain 2008 18579575 Activation in striatum and medial temporal lobe during sequence learning in younger and older adults: relations to performance Rieckmann A; Fischer H; Backman L NeuroImage 2010 20079855 Activation of olfactory and trigeminal cortical areas following stimulation of the nasal mucosa with low concentrations of S(-)-nicotine vapor-An fMRI study on chemosensory perception Albrecht J; Kopietz R; Linn J; Sakar V; Anzinger A; Schreder T; Pollatos O; Bruckmann H; Kobal G; Wiesmann M Human Brain Mapping 2009 18381635 Activity in the hippocampus and neocortical working memory regions predicts successful associative memory for temporally discontiguous events Hales JB; Brewer JB Neuropsychologia 2010 20667491 Activity in the Medial Temporal Lobe Predicts Memory Strength, Whereas Activity in the Prefrontal Cortex Predicts Recollection Kirwan CB; Wixted JT; Squire LR Journal of Neuroscience 2008 18923030 Acupuncture modulates resting state connectivity in default and sensorimotor brain networks Dhond RP; Yeh C; Park K; Kettner N; Napadow V Pain 2008 18337009 Acupuncture modulates spontaneous activities in the anticorrelated resting brain networks Bai L; Qin W; Tian J; Dong M; Pan X; Chen P; Dai J; Yang W; Liu Y Brain Research 2009 19427842 Adult age differences in functional connectivity during executive control Madden DJ; Costello MC; Dennis NA; Davis SW; Shepler AM; Spaniol J; Bucur B; Cabeza R NeuroImage 2010 20434565 Age- and gender-related changes in the normal human brain using hybrid diffusion imaging (HYDI) Wu YC; Field AS; Whalen PJ; Alexander AL NeuroImage 2011 20932911 Ageing and early-stage Parkinson's disease affect separable neural mechanisms of mesolimbic reward processing Schott BH; Niehaus L; Wittmann BC; Schutze H; Seidenbecher CI; Heinze HJ; Duzel E Brain 2007 17626038 Amygdala activation and facial expressions: explicit emotion discrimination versus implicit emotion processing Habel U; Windischberger C; Derntl B; Robinson S; Kryspin-Exner I; Gur RC; Moser E Neuropsychologia 2007 17408704 Amygdala and nucleus accumbens in responses to receipt and omission of gains in adults and adolescents Ernst M; Nelson EE; Jazbec S; McClure EB; Monk CS; Leibenluft E; Blair J; Pine DS NeuroImage 2005 15850746 Amygdala and orbitofrontal reactivity to social threat in individuals with impulsive aggression Coccaro EF; McCloskey MS; Fitzgerald DA; Phan KL Biological Psychiatry 2007 17210136 Amygdala function and 5-HTT gene variants in adolescent anxiety and major depressive disorder Lau JY; Goldman D; Buzas B; Fromm SJ; Guyer AE; Hodgkinson C; Monk CS; Nelson EE; Shen PH; Pine DS; Ernst M Biological Psychiatry 2009 18950748 An fMRI study of causal judgments Satpute AB; Fenker DB; Waldmann MR; Tabibnia G; Holyoak KJ; Lieberman MD European Journal of Neuroscience 2005 16176366 An fMRI study of the neural correlates of graded visual perception Christensen MS; Ramsoy TZ; Lund TE; Madsen KH; Rowe JB NeuroImage 2006 16626975 Anticipating instrumentally obtained and passively-received rewards: a factorial fMRI investigation Bjork JM; Hommer DW Behavioural Brain Research 2007 17140674 Anticipation of novelty recruits reward system and hippocampus while promoting recollection Wittmann BC; Bunzeck N; Dolan RJ; Duzel E NeuroImage 2007 17764976 Anticipatory brainstem activity predicts neural processing of pain in humans Fairhurst M; Wiech K; Dunckley P; Tracey I Pain 2007 17070996 Attention and emotion: does rating emotion alter neural responses to amusing and sad films? Hutcherson CA; Goldin PR; Ochsner KN; Gabrieli JD; Barrett LF; Gross JJ NeuroImage 2005 15946863 Attentional modulation of emotional stimulus processing: An fMRI study using emotional expectancy Bermpohl F; Pascual-Leone A; Amedi A; Merabet LB; Fregni F; Gaab N; Alsop D; Schlaug G; Northoff G Human Brain Mapping 2006 16317710 Auditory orienting and inhibition of return in mild traumatic brain injury: A FMRI study Mayer AR; Mannell MV; Ling J; Elgie R; Gasparovic C; Phillips JP; Doezema D; Yeo RA Human Brain Mapping 2009 19554558 Auditory temporal expectations modulate activity in visual cortex Bueti D; Macaluso E NeuroImage 2010 20298791 Being liked activates primary reward and midline self-related brain regions Davey CG; Allen NB; Harrison BJ; Dwyer DB; Yucel M Human Brain Mapping 2010 19823984 BET differences among simultaneous evoked frequency band responses during early-stage visual processing distinguish schizophrenia from healthy subjects Gonzalez-Hernandez JA; Pita-Alcorta C; Castaneda H; Trujillo-Barreto N; Scherbaum WA Neuroscience Letters 2009 19026720 Beyond patient reported pain: perfusion magnetic resonance imaging demonstrates reproducible cerebral representation of ongoing post-surgical pain Howard MA; Krause K; Khawaja N; Massat N; Zelaya F; Schumann G; Huggins JP; Vennart W; Williams SC; Renton TF PLoS ONE 2011 21373203 Bilateral brain regions associated with naming in older adults Obler LK; Rykhlevskaia E; Schnyer D; Clark-Cotton MR; Spiro A 3rd; Hyun J; Kim DS; Goral M; Albert ML Brain and Language 2010 20399492 BOLD correlates of trial-by-trial reaction time variability in gray and white matter: a multi-study fMRI analysis Yarkoni T; Barch DM; Gray JR; Conturo TE; Braver TS PLoS ONE 2009 19165335 Brain Activation during Anticipation of Sound Sequences Leaver AM; Van Lare J; Zielinski B; Halpern AR; Rauschecker JP Journal of Neuroscience 2009 19244522 Brain Activation during Input from Mechanoinsensitive versus Polymodal C-Nociceptors Ruehle BS; Handwerker HO; Lennerz JK; Ringler R; Forster C Journal of Neuroscience 2006 16707801 Brain activity related to temporal summation of C-fiber evoked pain Staud R; Craggs JG; Robinson ME; Perlstein WM; Price DD Pain 2007 17156923 Brain dynamics for perception of tactile allodynia (touch-induced pain) in postherpetic neuralgia Geha PY; Baliki MN; Wang X; Harden RN; Paice JA; Apkarian AV Pain 2008 18384958 Brain mediators of cardiovascular responses to social threat, part II: Prefrontal-subcortical pathways and relationship with anxiety Wager TD; van Ast VA; Hughes BL; Davidson ML; Lindquist MA; Ochsner KN NeuroImage 2009 19465135 Brain Networks Subserving the Extraction of Sentence Information and Its Encoding to Memory Hasson U; Nusbaum HC; Small SL Cerebral Cortex 2007 17372276 Brain responses to facial expressions of pain: emotional or motor mirroring? Budell L; Jackson P; Rainville P NeuroImage 2010 20510372 Brain responses to violet, blue, and green monochromatic light exposures in humans: prominent role of blue light and the brainstem Vandewalle G; Schmidt C; Albouy G; Sterpenich V; Darsaud A; Rauchs G; Berken PY; Balteau E; Degueldre C; Luxen A; Maquet P; Dijk DJ PLoS ONE 2007 18043754 Brain-behavior correlation in children depends on the neurocognitive network Booth JR; Burman DD; Meyer JR; Trommer BL; Davenport ND; Parrish TB; Gitelman DR; Mesulam MM Human Brain Mapping 2004 15340932 Category-specific effects in semantic memory: category-task interactions suggested by fMRI Grossman M; Koenig P; Kounios J; McMillan C; Work M; Moore P NeuroImage 2006 16413792 Cerebral and Cerebrospinal Processes Underlying Counterirritation Analgesia Piche M; Arsenault M; Rainville P Journal of Neuroscience 2009 19906971 Changes in cerebral glucose utilization in patients with panic disorder treated with cognitive-behavioral therapy Sakai Y; Kumano H; Nishikawa M; Sakano Y; Kaiya H; Imabayashi E; Ohnishi T; Matsuda H; Yasuda A; Sato A; Diksic M; Kuboki T NeuroImage 2006 16889985 Characterizing the neural mechanisms of skill learning and repetition priming: Evidence from mirror reading Brain 2001 11133788 Cocaine dependence and attention switching within and between verbal and visuospatial working memory Kubler A; Murphy K; Garavan H European Journal of Neuroscience 2005 15869491 Common and unique components of inhibition and working memory: an fMRI, within-subjects investigation McNab F; Leroux G; Strand F; Thorell L; Bergman S; Klingberg T Neuropsychologia 2008 18573510 Common neural systems for contact heat and laser pain stimulation reveal higher-level pain processing Helmchen C; Mohr C; Roehl M; Bingel U; Lorenz J; Buchel C Human Brain Mapping 2008 17924552 Compassionate attitude towards others' suffering activates the mesolimbic neural system Kim JW; Kim SE; Kim JJ; Jeong B; Park CH; Son AR; Song JE; Ki SW Neuropsychologia 2009 19428038 Compensatory cortical activation observed by fMRI during a cognitive task at the earliest stage of multiple sclerosis Audoin B; Ibarrola D; Ranjeva JP; Confort-Gouny S; Malikova I; Ali-Cherif A; Pelletier J; Cozzone P Human Brain Mapping 2003 14505331 Compensatory mechanisms underlie intact task-switching performance in schizophrenia Jamadar S; Michie P; Karayanidis F Neuropsychologia 2010 20036266 COMT Val(108/158)Met polymorphism effects on emotional brain function and negativity bias Williams LM; Gatt JM; Grieve SM; Dobson-Stone C; Paul RH; Gordon E; Schofield PR NeuroImage 2010 20139013 Cortical and subcortical contributions to saccade latency in the human brain Neggers SF; Raemaekers MA; Lampmann EE; Postma A; Ramsey NF European Journal of Neuroscience 2005 15926933 Cortical metabolic changes in the cerebellar variant of multiple system atrophy: a voxel-based FDG-PET study in 41 patients Lee PH; An YS; Yong SW; Yoon SN NeuroImage 2008 18203624 Cortical processing of visceral and somatic stimulation: differentiating pain intensity from unpleasantness Dunckley P; Wise RG; Aziz Q; Painter D; Brooks J; Tracey I; Chang L Neuroscience 2005 15896917 Detection of unexpected events during spatial navigation in humans: bottom-up attentional system and neural mechanisms Iaria G; Fox CJ; Chen JK; Petrides M; Barton JJ European Journal of Neuroscience 2008 18279364 Developmental Differences in Posterior Mesofrontal Cortex Recruitment by Risky Rewards Bjork JM; Smith AR; Danube CL; Hommer DW Journal of Neuroscience 2007 17475792 Differences in feedback- and inhibition-related neural activity in adult ADHD Dibbets P; Evers L; Hurks P; Marchetta N; Jolles J Brain and Cognition 2009 19201515 Different areas of human non-primary auditory cortex are activated by sounds with spatial and nonspatial properties Hart HC; Palmer AR; Hall DA Human Brain Mapping 2004 14755837 Differential cerebral activation during observation of expressive gestures and motor acts Lotze M; Heymans U; Birbaumer N; Veit R; Erb M; Flor H; Halsband U Neuropsychologia 2006 16730755 Differential contributions of the anterior temporal and medial temporal lobe to the retrieval of memory for person identity information Tsukiura T; Suzuki C; Shigemune Y; Mochizuki-Kawai H Human Brain Mapping 2008 17948885 Differential temporo-parietal cortical networks that support relational and item-based recency judgments Kimura HM; Hirose S; Kunimatsu A; Chikazoe J; Jimura K; Watanabe T; Abe O; Ohtomo K; Miyashita Y; Konishi S NeuroImage 2010 19909817 Dissociable processes of cognitive control during error and non-error conflicts: a study of the stop signal task Hendrick OM; Ide JS; Luo X; Li CS PLoS ONE 2010 20949134 Dissociating brain regions controlling the temporal and ordinal structure of learned movement sequences Bengtsson SL; Ehrsson HH; Forssberg H; Ullen F European Journal of Neuroscience 2004 15128413 Distinct Neural Circuits Support Transient and Sustained Processes in Prospective Memory and Working Memory Reynolds JR; West R; Braver T Cerebral Cortex 2009 18854581 Does caffeine modulate verbal working memory processes? 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