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amyce [2012/08/21 22:17]
So Young Choe [Neuropharmacology]
amyce [2017/09/27 22:54] (current)
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 **Implicit Emotional Learning and Memory** **Implicit Emotional Learning and Memory**
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 The lateral nucleus (LA) is typically viewed as the sensory interface of the amygdala and as a key site of plasticity, while the centralnucleus (CE) is viewed as the output region. LA receives inputs from both thalamic and cortical stations in the auditory system, and both are involved in CS transmission. LA projects to CE both directly and indirectly. It is still unclear whether the direct connection from LA to CE is sufficient or whether a link through the basal nuclei and/or the intercalated cell masses might be involved, or even whether direct sensory connections to CE might play a role. As with tone conditioning,​ the CE is involved in controlling responses, but the input region involves synapses in the basal nucleus. The lateral nucleus (LA) is typically viewed as the sensory interface of the amygdala and as a key site of plasticity, while the centralnucleus (CE) is viewed as the output region. LA receives inputs from both thalamic and cortical stations in the auditory system, and both are involved in CS transmission. LA projects to CE both directly and indirectly. It is still unclear whether the direct connection from LA to CE is sufficient or whether a link through the basal nuclei and/or the intercalated cell masses might be involved, or even whether direct sensory connections to CE might play a role. As with tone conditioning,​ the CE is involved in controlling responses, but the input region involves synapses in the basal nucleus.
  
 **The Amygdala Facilitates Attention to Salient Stimuli** **The Amygdala Facilitates Attention to Salient Stimuli**
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 Kapp and colleagues (B.S. Kapp et al., 1996, 1997, Soc. Neurosci., abstract) have shown that cells in CE respond to a CS and that fluctuations in the cortical EEG are correlated with changes in the spontaneous activity of CE cells. Both direct and indirect pathways are proposed for the amygdala'​s transitory modulation of cortical regions. First, there are reciprocal connections between amygdalanuclei and sensory cortex (Amaral et al., 2003), indicating a means by which the amygdala could influence sensory processes through direct projections. Second, the CE projects to the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM), which projects to widespread cortical areas, many of which are sensory-processing regions. Acetycholine,​ which is released in these cortical areas via the NBM, has been shown to facilitate neuronal responsivity. Kapp and colleagues (B.S. Kapp et al., 1996, 1997, Soc. Neurosci., abstract) have shown that cells in CE respond to a CS and that fluctuations in the cortical EEG are correlated with changes in the spontaneous activity of CE cells. Both direct and indirect pathways are proposed for the amygdala'​s transitory modulation of cortical regions. First, there are reciprocal connections between amygdalanuclei and sensory cortex (Amaral et al., 2003), indicating a means by which the amygdala could influence sensory processes through direct projections. Second, the CE projects to the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM), which projects to widespread cortical areas, many of which are sensory-processing regions. Acetycholine,​ which is released in these cortical areas via the NBM, has been shown to facilitate neuronal responsivity.
  
 **Emotional Regulation and Coping** **Emotional Regulation and Coping**
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 Damage to the centralnucleus of the amygdala prevents freezing to the CS (a passive form of coping) but does not interfere with the ability to learn responses that terminate or prevent the CS (active coping). Damage to the centralnucleus of the amygdala prevents freezing to the CS (a passive form of coping) but does not interfere with the ability to learn responses that terminate or prevent the CS (active coping).